Tetyana P. Fedoniuk, Roman H. Fedoniuk, Ludmila D. Romanchuk, Anatolyy A. Petruk and Viktor M. Pazych
The article focuses on the problem of structure degradation and ecosystem functioning – the urgency that identifies the relevance of operations at a strategic level aimed at providing the integrated assessment of ecological stability of water. Determination of water quality indicators were divided into blocks according to the criteria of salt composition, according to chemical saprobological indicators and the content of specific substances of toxic and radiation action. According to the results of block analysis, the integrated ecological index of water quality was determined by the dependence of water quality on the indicators of ecological stabilization of the landscape and the structure of biotechnical elements. The article determines the relationships between worsening quality of surface waters and stabilization or destabilization of the landscape structure. The research was conducted on medium and large streamflows on the Right Bank of Polesie region of the Dnieper-River cascade within which the tracts of land were identified and the landscape ecological stability (CESL1) and landscape biotechnical elements coefficients (CESL2) were determined. The retrospective analysis was performed of the surface water features on the Right Bank of Polesie region of the Dnieper-River cascade and the main trends in salt block indicators, trophic and saprobiological block indicators, and in the content of toxic and radioactive substances at observation sites were estimated. Based on obtained data, the integrated assessment in trends of surface water quality on the Right Bank of Polesie region of the Dnieper-River cascade was made and the main parameters and scale of stabilization and destabilization of landscape impact on the water quality formation were defined.
The function of permanent grasslands in water resources protection
Permanent grasslands - according to the Water Framework Directive - are typical water related ecosystems so they largely affect water quality, its cycling and balance and therefore deserve protection. They are an element of landscape structure (ecosystem function or service) commonly considered a factor stabilising environmental changes.
Most threats posed to waters in Poland originate from present cropland structure with its definite predominance of arable lands over grasslands. Agriculture should therefore focus on the improvement of land use structure in order to minimise environmental hazards and to guarantee at the same time optimum economic effects. This could be achieved by turning arable lands into grasslands (where justified e.g. on light soils) or at least by maintaining present grassland area (condition in negotiations with the EU) and management that would consider environmental protection.
Increasing the contribution of grasslands to cropland structure or at least maintaining their present status quo would help to achieve compromise between the goals of farmers and environmental protection. Purposeful utilisation of ecosystem services, particularly those of grasslands, allows to maintain more intensive farming without environmental hazard. Limited should be only such activities whose intensity exceeds regenerative or buffering environmental capacity e.g. on grounds particularly subjected to water pollution or those included into Natura 2000 network.
Monika Mętrak, Paweł Pawlikowski and Małgorzata Suska-Malawska
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