Carlos Coca Gamito CDFMR and Georgios Baltos CDFMR
integration – the Eurozone. Labour mobility is especially important in the context of the latter as a traditional mechanism of adjustment to asymmetric economic shocks. Mobility usually absorbs a certain amount of the asymmetric shocks over time. Similarly, movements associated with these shocks have increased because of the euro-monetary integration, and have a direct impact on wages due to such respective adjustments ( Arpaia et al., 2016 ).
The latest Eurozone financial crisis is a characteristic long-term macro-economic shock carrying over asymmetric effects. This
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The Kraków Metropolitan Area (KOM) is a specific functional region comprising a big city that is the Kraków metropolis, together with its neighbouring complex of settlements with a variety of mutual interactions. The social and economic space requires multi-dimensional enhancement of its interrelations and partial rehabilitation of its developed areas; it constitutes, at the same time, a potential which strengthens the position of Kraków as a European city. A clear structure of the metropolitan area and its internal links through green seams provide the basis for functional and spatial integration of the metropolis. The greenery, comprised in larger natural structures such as river parks and green wedges, enhances the area’s polycentric concept. The shaping of the urban tissue of Kraków and its suburban zone by composing and building a network of open spaces is the basic criterion for developing a coherent metropolitan area with a sustainable structure. Many problems of the urban environment and its surroundings can be fully understood through their analyses in various scales. In order to better illustrate this complex system of interrelations, reference should be made in analyses to the macroregional scale then narrowing them to the regional scale, to ultimately go down to the metropolis. The issues covered in the paper concern open areas which should not be discussed without a broader spectrum because the notion of green areas is understood to mean primarily spaces which are networked and intertwined with the settlement structure. Some of them are clear, for instance the greenery which accompanies water courses, and easy to identify. Marshlands are mostly linearly continuous and this makes them coherent in their nature. Other green areas (apart from larger forest complexes) are not of essential significance for the integration of the metropolis. The example of Kraków shows that the KOM (1) has a big potential expressed through its natural environment in the form of green areas. The anthropopressure, however, is so high that open spaces are being absorbed by developments. It is riverside areas which have retained a clear structure of interrelations and they should be perceived as the future for the links in the metropolitan area.
The cultural landscape reflects the composite influences of the regional physical, cultural, and technological environments. It is a dynamic entity which evolves over time and the perceptions of its human inhabitants is influential in the process. This paper is a descriptive analysis of Kangerlussuaq, a young but maturing settlement located in west Greenland near the inland ice. The site’s natural resource base did not attract permanent settlement by the Inuit or Scandinavian colonists, but in the early days of the World War II, the American military took advantage of the exceptional flying conditions here and established an air base. In time, civilian functions developed as Kangerlussuaq became the hub for air travel in Greenland. A transitory utilitarian settlement was eventually transformed into a more permanent settlement. In recent years there seems to be a growing sense of community and place attachment as the cultural landscape begins to exhibit more of the components of a real ‘town’.
Łukasz Damurski, Jacek Pluta, Karel Maier and Hans Thor Andersen
Local service centres play a vital role in shaping the quality of life in urban neighbourhoods. They offer access to essential everyday services (shops, education, healthcare, personal services) and to public spaces. If they are properly planned and managed, they can bring particular added values to a local community, such as social integration and territorial identification. The history of urban planning has produced several patterns of local service centres (ancient agora, mediaeval market square, neighbourhood unit, modern agora) but today a question arises: how can a local service centre be successfully planned and organised in post-modern political practice? How can its potential be realised and the ever-changing needs, expectations and preferences of local communities be met? Who should be involved in those processes? To answer those questions in this paper we refer to citizen participation and public communication concepts, where selecting the appropriate stakeholders emerges as a necessary starting point for effective urban governance. We present the results of in-depth interviews with local actors (local authorities, municipality officials, town planners, non-governmental organisations, local leaders) in Poland (Wrocław, Siechnice, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Warszawa and Zabierzów), Czech Republic (Prague) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Depending on the specific local context, various stakeholders are perceived as essential to the decision-making process. The power relations and problems encountered in implementing public policy in particular locations have been summarised in three sections: relationships between stakeholders, leadership, and good practices. The paper concludes with a list of typical actors who should be involved in planning, building and managing a local service centre in an urbanised neigh-bourhood.
Kinga Kimic, Gabriela Maksymiuk and Marzena Suchocka
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