Alexander, M 2004, ‘Comparing local policies toward migrants: An analytical framework, a typology and preliminary survey results’, in Citizenship in European Cities. Immigrants. Local politics and integration policies , eds R Penninx, K Kraal. M Martiniello & S Vertovec, Ashgate, Aldershot, pp. 57-85.
Blommaert, J & Martiniello M. 1996, `Ethnic mobilization, multiculturalism and the political process in two Belgian cities: Antwerp and Liège’, Innovation 9 (1), pp. 51-73.
others ( Pawłowski 1938 ).
Contemporary treatment of the natural environment as a whole is a consequence of the introduction of systems theory ( Allen Philip A. 2000 ). The integrative character of geography gives unusual opportunities for cooperation between different scientific disciplines. Undoubtedly, while conducting research, geography uses the results of other sciences, but the proper geographical survey begins only when geographical relations are found ( Pawłowski 1938 ). In this light, attention should also be paid to the nature of school geography as a
prompts the erosion of boundaries. Limited border controls and the declining importance of borders lead to their increasing permeability (see, for example, Kolejka et al. 2015 or Stryjakiewicz 1998 ), to more intensive interaction, and consequently to the emergence or reconstruction of the elements of a frontier. We can say that European integration processes have largely contributed to the softening of the meaning of borders.
Nevertheless, at the same time, the two processes unfold in a context of historical legacy, as well as in actual border reality. Keeping in
border areas, the political situation in the region as a whole and economic integration processes) all have a major influence in shaping the forms spatial management assumes. External actors interested in operating in the peripheral regions of Latin American countries often have the effect of widening disparities between traditional regions and those being shaped anew by global interests.
In the space generated and transformed by human activity it is possible to distinguish certain repeated regularities and schemes as present in most spatial systems. The most
changes, like the reintroduction of local autonomy for cities, took place in parallel with the process of European integration. The process of integration has not had a uniform impact on the economic development of cities, and this might have resulted in changes in their economic position.
For some cities in CEE, European integration will have led to a more favorable economic development, as compared to all cities within a country or region; for other cities, the impact of integration will have been unfavorable. It is quite obvious that European integration has led to
Ahern, J 2005, ‘Theories, methods and strategies for sustainable landscape planning’ in From Landscape Research to Landscape Planning: Aspects of Integration, Education and Application eds B Tress, G Tress, G Fry & P Opdam, Springer, Frankfurt, pp. 119–131.
Barsch, H, Bastian, O, Beierkuhnlein, C, Bosshard, A, Breuste, J, Klötzli, F, Otl, K, Tress, B, Tress, G & Weiland, U 2002, ‘Application of landscape ecology’ in Development and Perspectives of Landscape Ecology eds O Bastian & U Steinhardt, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 307
This article deals with the topic of the local development factors within the value chain of the commune (gmina). The concept of the value chain examines development factors in three groups: the leader, the internal environment and the external environment; it also takes into account the time factor. This article also presents the usefulness of three theoretical and conceptual approaches in reference to the idea of the value chain: the theory of development path dependency, the network theory, and the concept of smart specializations.
industrialization period at the turn of the 20 th century. Most scholars agree that regional specialization and national integration were not dichotomous phenomena at that time, and instead emphasize that increasing regional specialization depended on concomitant processes of intra- and inter-regional integration ( Gregory 1990 ).
Some previous research, however, does not clarify how—and through whom—these two processes were accomplished; in this context, the role of human agencies, which linked production with markets and distribution in practice, is critical, because the