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Olexander Zhukov, Olga Kunah, Yulia Dubinina, Yulia Zhukova and Dmytro Ganzha
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Claudiu-Sorin Dragomir, Vasile Meita, Daniela Dobre, Emil-Sever Georgescu and Ioan-Sorin Borcia
The main objective of the National Seismic Network for Constructions, operated by the National Institute for Research and Development in Constructions, Urban Planning and Spatial Territorial Development “URBAN-INCERC”, is the monitoring of situations generated by earthquakes or other dangerous sources of vibrations induced in constructions on the entire Romanian territory. The NIRD URBAN-INCERC seismic records obtained in-situ and on buildings were and are extremely important for designers, especially in 1977, 1986 and 1990. It is the largest network in Romania, consisting of some 60 digital acceleration recorders distributed in Bucharest and in the country. This network is strategic from the population safety point of view. Due to the specific seismic hazard and vulnerability, our country shall be in preparation for the impact of a possible earthquake, which cannot be predicted in time domain, but it is possible to occur anytime. To prevent and mitigate negative consequences of such an event, urgent actions are required to ensure structural safety. Given the facts, Romania is in a critical time on strategic options regarding the seismic risks.
Presently, a urgent necessity is the seismic network function in order to get as much as possible strong-motion data for advanced research and to understand why damages in buildings occurred. The next goal is to have more parametric and spectral data for engineering design, as well as to improve the zoning maps, having more stations at reduced distances. If possible, strong-motion micro-zonation data would explain some specific shaking differences, as a future option for local arrays.
The paper presents the necessity, means and requirements of achieving a holistic and integrative concept for the national seismic network of constructions, taking into account geological settings, environmental and local soil conditions on regional profiles, attenuation patterns, architectural and structural patterns, and number of seismic stations in specific seismic zones. Also, a case study of building seismic instrumentation in Bucharest according to the Romanian Seismic Design code, indicative P100-1:2013.
Limited to fourth percent or less of the country’s total land area, Egypt’s agricultural landscape is threatened by the repercussions of climate change, desertification, soil depletion, and looming water scarcity. Outside of the Nile river valley and scattered fertile pockets in the desert oases, the vast majority of land is desert: rocky, parched and unable to support conventional farming. According to Egyptian National Action Program 2005 (ENAP), Egypt covers an area of about one million km2 ~ 100 million hectares, out of which about of 76.5 thousands km2 ~ 7.6% of the total area are inhabited, and the remaining (92.4%) area is desert. Desertification is a very complex process governed by several variables which influence each other. It is thus not possible to conclude for the general picture from a single factor alone. This process has a high rate in arid and hyper-arid countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this research was to evaluation the present-day climate-induced desertification in El-Dakhla Oasis, so in this study, the newest method for evaluating and mapping of desertification was used. The mathematic method was carried out by European Commission (EC), (MEditerranean Desertification And Land Use) at the MEDALUS project and booked as ESAs in 1999 integrated with remote sensing and GIS. All indices of the model were revised before using, and regarding to the region condition these indices were defined as key indices which were: Temperature, precipitation, wind, albedo, ground water and soil benchmark, and each benchmark has some sub-layers getting from their geometric mean. Based on the MEDALUS model, each sub-benchmark was quantified according to its quality and given a weighting of between 1.0 and 2.0. All benchmarks should be reinvestigated and adjusted to local conditions. Ultimately, desertification severity was classified in four level including low, moderate, Severe and high Severe. ArcGIS 10 was used to analysis and prepares the layers of quality maps using the geometric mean to integrate the individual sub-indicator maps. In turn the geometric mean of six quality maps was used to generate a single desertification status map. Remote sensing data have great potential to improve models mapping spatial variability of temperature and precipitation since they are available as time worldwide, and have high spatial resolution. The HYDRA visualization software was used to measure the present surface albedo from MODIS product (MOD43C1). Results showed that 60% of the area is classified as Severe, 14 % as moderate and 12%, 16% as low and none affected by desertification respectively. In addition the climatic variations including rainfall, temperature, sunlight, wind indicators were the most important factors affecting desertification process in El-Dakhla Oasis.
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Perotto Eleonora, Canziani R, Marchesi R, Butelli, Paola, (2008
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V. (2013). Influences of climate and land use history on forest and timberline dynamics in the Carpathian mountains during the twentieth Century. In J. Kozak, K. Ostapowicz, A. Bytnerowicz & B. Wyzga (Eds.), The Carpathians: Integrating nature and society towards sustainability (pp. 209-223). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
Sidiropoulou, A., Karatassiou, M., Galidaki, G. & Sklavou P. (2015). Landscape pattern changes in response to transhumance abandonment on mountain Vermio (North Greece). Sustainability, 7(11), 15652-15673. DOI: 10.3390/su71115652
Electronic waste (e-waste) is one of the fastest-growing pollution problems worldwide given the presence if a variety of toxic substances which can contaminate the environment and threaten human health, if disposal protocols are not meticulously managed. In Bangladesh almost 2.7 million metric tons of e-waste generated per year. Of this amount only 20 to 30 percent is recycled and the rest of the waste is released in to landfills, rivers, drains lakes, canals, open spaces which are very hazardous for the health and environment. Since Bangladesh is in the stream of rapid technological advancement, it is seldom to take necessary steps to avoid the future jeopardized situation because of e-waste. The current practices of e-waste management in Bangladesh suffer from a number of drawbacks like the difficulty in inventory, unhealthy conditions of informal recycling, inadequate legislation and policy, poor awareness and reluctance on part of the corporate to address the critical issues. The paper highlights the associated issues and strategies to address this emerging problem, analyses the policy and its gaps. Therefore, this paper also suggest that e-waste policy development may require a more customized approach where, instead of addressing e-waste in isolation, it should be addressed as part of the national development agenda that integrates green economy assessment and strategic environmental assessment as part of national policy planning. Finally this work also suggests some alternative strategies and approaches to overcome the challenges of e-waste.