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Sarra Mansouri, Lahbassi Ouerdachi and Mohamed Remaoun
Water is seen as key factor for development. Its scarcity raises concerns at all scales. In regards to water resources, Annaba and El-Taref are intimately connected, the different activities (groundwater and superficial), focused on increasing supply, have been considered as a response to water demand.
The actual system use of water resources is not able to sustain water needs that are more and more growing in different expansion sectors. Consequently, a strategy should therefore be sought to integrate the various sectoral needs in available water resources in order to reach the economic and ecological sustainability. We will try to respond to this problem by use of Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) model. This study is the first attempt to estimate water demand and analysis of multiple and competing uses of hydro-system in Seybouse’s Wadi basin and to make comparison with proposed water storage estimates. This model was applied according to five different scenarios which reflect the best and worst conditions of the supply and demand, not only to evaluate water demand deficit, but also to help planners to the alternative management.
The model stimulation showed that the area study is sensitive to a serious water scarcity by 2030. It is possible to observe an improvement with integration of other management strategies for a best operating system.
Hydrodynamic modelling is used to analyse the inundation behaviour of Sidi Bel Abbes city (North-West of Algeria) during extreme flood events. The study reach, 5.4 km in length, is a section of Wadi Mekerra through Sidi Bel Abbes city. Land and bathymetric surveys were used to create a digital terrain model (DTM) of the river channel and the floodplain. By coupling the geometry with hydrologic data, a two dimensional hydrodynamic model was built. The model is based on integrating Saint-Venant shallow waters (depth averaged) equations through Runge–Kutta discontinuous Galerkin numerical scheme. It was calibrated in terms of roughness coefficients on measured values of water surface elevation and discharge registered in the Sidi Bel Abbes gauging station. The objective is to draw the flood maps under extreme river flood event. The results are helpful for local authorities in order to take the appropriate defence measures in the future.
The evaluation of global warming's effects on soil temperature - case of Tlemcen (North Africa)
The average temperature of the Earth as a whole is not stable but varies with time, as evidenced by analysis of geological layers. Our planet was colder by ten degrees Celsius 20 000 years ago, during the height of the last ice age. These variations are still very slow, and the temperature has fluctuated by only 0.2 degrees between the year 1000 and the late nineteenth century (Esslinger, 2009). The fact that worries the international community at present is the acceleration of the phenomenon, which now occurs at a rate unmatched in the past. Thus, since the late nineteenth century the average global temperature rose by 0.6 degrees. Worse, the computer simulations suggest that warming will accelerate and the average temperature could therefore increase by 1.4 to 5.8 degrees by the end of the century. This phenomenon is called global warming.
In this study, global warming effects on soil temperature of Tlemcen (North of Africa), was evaluated by the analysis of spatial and temporal variations of the soil temperature data. The aim of this study is to set an equation, which introduces the ground temperature field as a function of depth, time, and ground thermal properties in an area where the local warming is known. To achieve this goal, numerical solution of general heat conduction equation and a special programme were used. The integration of derived function could be used to determine the heat accumulation in the ground as a result of global warming.
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K essler R. 2011
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