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The article deals with the issues of merging Local Government Units (LGU). Based on Polish experience related to the unique process of integration of the city and the commune of Zielona Góra in 2015, the authors present the most important economic and social aspects of combining local government units. The article also presents important elements of the process of creating a new functional area from two different neighbouring local government units. Moreover, the exemplified research results, carried out in 2018 among residents of the commune annexed to the city, concerning the economic and social effects of the integration process, made available by the City of Zielona Góra for the purposes of this article, were presented and discussed there. At the same time, a synthetic evaluation of this process was carried out in the light of the documents analysed in the article that form the basis of the merger process and presented results of empirical research.

REFEENCES Chen, Y. (2016). Industrial information integration – A literature review 2006-2015, Journal of Industrial Integration, 2, pp. 30-64. Esridge, C., Eveleigh, T. and Tanju, B. (2016). Integration of System Modeling and Design Processes, Data and Technology for streamlining Enterprise Integration, Procedia Computer Science, 95, pp. 311-318. Forsberg, K., Mooz, H. and Cotterman, H. (2005). Visualizing Project Management: Models and Frameworks for Mastering Complex Systems. Third Edition, John Wiley&Sons, Hoboken. Fosse, E. (2014). Model-based Systems


In the article the idea of the “Smart City” is analysed mainly from the view point of technology. The author presents in the first part of the paper the brief review of technical issues connected with implementing the concept of “Smart City” into practice. These review is illustrated in the second part of the paper by some practical results, which are treated as a background for formulating a research problem which is tried to be presented in the third part of the paper: the problem of recognizing needs in the complex field of activities, assessing these needs and - basing on results of such an assessment - designing some integrated solutions that should be used in management of the identified resources. The final part of the paper contains some conclusions and introduces directions for further research.

REFEENCES Arm Mbed. (2018). Understanding the different types of BLE Beacons, . Brokaw, S. (2014). The expectation of Quick Response (QR) Codes in print media: An empirical data research anthology. Journal of undergraduate research. Davenport, T.H., Prusak, L. (1998). Working knowledge. Harvard Business School Press, Boston. Filos, E. (2006). Smart organizations in the digital age In: Mezgár, I. (ed.) Integration of Information and Communication Technologies in Smart Organizations. Idea

Implementation of RFID Systems. Int. J. of Eng. Bus. Manag., 5(9), pp. 1-16. Tran, X.-L., Huynh, T.-V., Shoval, S., and Ferris, T. (2008). Research on a Framework for Systems Engineering Tools for Australian Small and Medium Enterprises. INCOSE Int. Symp., 18(1), pp.1104-1119. Wiesner, S., Nilsson, S., and Thoben, K.D. (2017). Integrating requirements engineering for different domains in system development - lessons learnt from industrial SME cases. Procedia CIRP, 36, pp. 351-356.

sustainability of a manufacturing process: A conceptual framework. Sustainability, 10(1), pp. 81. Ness, B., Urbel-Piirsalu, E., Anderberg, S. and Olsson, L. (2007). Categorizing tools for sustainability assessment. Ecological Economics, 60(3), pp. 498-508. Ryan, M. (2015). Geometry for Dummies. New York, NY: For Dummies Book. Santoyo-Castelazo, E. and Azapagic, A. (2014). Sustainability assessment of energy systems: integrating environmental, economic and social aspects. Journal of Cleaner Production, 80, pp. 119-138. Skowrońska, M. and Filipek, T. (2014). Life cycle


The purpose of the article is to present the integrated sustainable freight transport system dedicated for city clusters. The presented concept and calculation model is the result of a broader study on the effectiveness of production and transport systems in urban areas. The integrated sustainable freight transport system described in this paper serves multi-floor manufacturing clusters and therefore meets two efficiency requirements: technological integration and process sustainability. The integration of in-house transport system servicing multi-floor manufacturing building and supply chain deliveries to/from logistic node is based on efficient use of Intelligent Reconfigurable Trolleys (IRTs). The calculation model of integrated freight transport system allows for the quantitative matching of key elements of the transport system to the multi-floor manufacturing cluster needs. Properly selected and functionally integrated elements of proposed transport system allows to minimize losses and reduce the negative impact of transport on the environment.


Integrated management systems are increasingly used in modern enterprises. They allow for a more comprehensive approach to a number of important issues, affecting the modification of activities and process improvement. However, the integration itself often does not provide the right effects (apart from economic ones) without leading to real, multifaceted coupling of activities between the components of the system. To obtain such effects, it is necessary to connect the components in one system. Knowledge management can be a helpful element in this activity. Each component of the integrated management systems generates a large number of data and information. Their use is possible only by building on their basis knowledge leading to improvement of activities or innovation. The use of knowledge, especially hidden knowledge that contains unique and inaccessible knowledge for competitors, should be a priority for today's enterprises. The study presents considerations regarding the possibility of including knowledge management in integrated management systems, treating knowledge as a basic element connecting the system.


Tightening the environmental norms that result from the priorities of the EU 2030 Energy and Climate Package and the reform of the EU ETS have caused the necessity to implement an effective system of managing the risk of carbon dioxide emission and integrate it with the existing enterprise management system. Evaluation of the direction and strength of correlation between EUA price changes and energy companies stock price returns is crucial from point of view the managerial staff making proper decisions about the use of the CO2 emission permits by energy companies. It is an important stage of carbon emission risk management process. The aim of this paper is to verify the possibility of use the multifactor models with GARCH structure as a tool supporting the carbon emission management process in energy companies. Empirical analysis is connected with the estimation of multifactor models with GARCH structure in the Phase II and Phase III of the EU ETS functioning for two groups of Polish energy companies: group of the Respect Index companies and others. Such an approach allows to check whether the Respect Index companies are more robust than others on the carbon emission risk, in particular the EUA price risk associated with the intensification works on modifying the EU ETS functioning. We found that the impact of EUA price changes on energy companies stock returns and their volatility is statistically insignificant in case of all Respect Index companies.

, Eng and Technol, 59(12), pp. 2014-2019. Bayo-Moriones, A., Bello-Pintado, A. and Merino-Díaz de Cerio, J. (2010). 5S use in manufacturing plants – contextual factors and impact on operating performance. Int J Qual & Rel Manage, 27(2), pp. 217-230. Bevilacqua, M., Ciarapica, F.E., De Sanctis, I., Mazzuto, G. and Paciarotti, C. (2015). A changeover time reduction through an integration of lean practices: a case study from pharmaceutical sector. Ass Auto, 35(10), pp. 22-34. Chapman, C.D. (2005). Clean house with lean 5S. Quality Progress, 38(6), pp. 27-32. Kaushik, K