Eva Almeida Lima, Marisa Machado and João Carlos Nunes
The Azores archipelago is distinguished by its unique natural beauty and marine setting. Thanks to its volcanic origin, the region has a very rich and remarkable geodiversity that includes a diversity of landscapes with innumerable craters, volcanic lakes, fumaroles, hot springs, volcanic caves, marine fossil deposits and thermal water springs. The recognition of this valuable geological heritage came with the recent integration of the Azores Geopark into the European and Global Geopark Networks. The pressure that the increasing development of tourism have been exerting on these geological sites for the last years, and the need to create alternative forms of tourism, which contribute towards the socio-economic development in rural areas, have highlighted the importance of geotourism as a tool to promote and preserve the geological heritage of the Azores. Geotourism has turned to be an important instrument of environmental awareness through the local and foreign people.
This paper summarizes theoretical knowledge related to an issue of assessment of tourism impacts on a tourism destination. This paper pays special attention to stakeholders’ perception of tourism impacts as a popular approach to tourism impacts assessment in recent decades. Its aim is to map the key research focused on classification and assessment of tourism impacts in relation to regional stakeholders, using a summary and comparison of various research approaches over the past decades. The paper uses an integrative literature review of 28 papers published in top-rated journals which can be considered as a relevant sample of the research effort from the beginnings of 1990s. It compares commonly used approaches to the classification and assessment of tourism impacts through a comparative content analysis and points out their common characteristics and differences. The secondary aim is to define research implications as a theoretical and methodical basis for future research aimed at this topic.
Complex systems are characterised by a huge amount of components, which are highly linked with each other. Tourism is one of the examples of complex systems collecting various activities leading to the enrichment of travellers in the view of receiving new experiences and increasing economic prosperity of specific destinations. The complex systems can be investigated with various bottom-up and top-down approaches. The multi-agent-based modelling is the bottom-up approach that is focused on the representation of individual entities for the exploration of possible interactions among them and their effects on surrounding environments. These systems are able to integrate knowledge of socio-cultural, economic, physical, biological or environmental systems for in-silico models development, which can be used for experimentation with a system. The main aim of the presented text is to introduce links between tourism, complexity and to advocate usefulness of the multi-agent-based systems for the exploration of tourism and its sustainability. The evaluation of suitability of the multi-agent systems in tourism is based on the investigation of fundamental characteristics of these two systems and on the review of specific applications of the multi-agent systems in sustainable tourism.
Jorge Ramos-García, Juan Pedro Ibarra-Michel and Mónica Velarde-Valdez
). Sustainable community development: integrating environmental, economic, and social objectives. Progress in Planning , 54(2), 73–132. DOI: 10.1016/S0305–9006(00)00003–9.
Ross, S., & Wall, G. (1999). Ecotourism: Towards congruence between theory and practice. Tourism Management , 20(1), 123–132. DOI: 10.1016/S0261–5177(98)00098–3.
Scheyvens, R. (1999). Ecotourism and the Empowerment of Local Communities Ecotourism and the empowerment of local communities. Tourism Management , 20, 245–249. DOI: 10.1016/S0261–5177(98)00069–7.
Stake, E. R. (2005
Science Bulletin , 46, 4–6. DOI: 10.1007/BF03187227.
Panizza, M., & Piacente, S. (1993). Geomorphological assets evaluation. Zeitschrift fur geomorfologie , Supp. Band, 87, 13–18.
Panizza, M., & Piacente, S. (2005). Geomorphosites: a bridge betwenn scientific research, cultural integration and artistic suggestion. Il Quaternario – Italian Journal of Quaternary Sciences , 18(1), 3–10.
Panizza, M., & Piacente, S. (2008). Geomorphosites and geotourism. Rev. Geogr. Acadêmica , 2(1), 5–9.
Panizza, M., & Reynard, E. (2005). Géomorphosites
, O. (Eds.), National Parks: Vegetation, Wildlife and Threats (pp. 83-103). Hauppauge, USA: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Thirumaran, K., Dam, M. X., & Thirumaran, C. M. (2013). Integrating Souvenirs with Tourism Development: Vietnam’s. Tourism Planning & Development, September. DOI: 10.1080/21568316.2013.839471.
Ting, Z., & Xun, Z. (2004). Geoscientific significance and classification of National Geoparks of China. Acta Geologica Sinica‐English Edition, 78(3), 854-865. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-6724.2004. tb00207.x.
. In C. Ryan (Ed.), The Tourist Experience (pp. 112-136). 2nd ed. London, UK: Thomson Learning.
Pásková, M. (2012). Environmentalistika cestovního ruchu. Czech Journal of Tourism , 1 (2), 77-113.
Pásková, M., & Zelenka, J. (2002). Cestovní ruch: výkladový slovník . 1. vyd. Praha: MMR ČR.
Pearce, D. G. (1998). Tourism development in Paris: Public Intervention. Annals of Tourism Research , 25 (2), 457-476.
Pearce, D. G. (2001). An Integrative Framework for Urban Tourism Research. Annals of Tourism Research , 28 (4), 926-946.
Popp, M. (2011). Positive
- Suppl., 4-6. DOI: 10.1007/BF03187227.
Panizza, M. (2009). The Geomorphodiversity of the Dolomites (Italy): A Key of Geoheritage Assessment. Geoheritage , 1(1), 33-42.
Panizza, M., & Piacente, S. (1993). Geomorphological assets evaluation. Zeitschrift fur geomorfologie , Supp. Band 87, 13-18.
Panizza, M., & Piacente, S. (2005). Geomorphosites: a bridge betwenn scientific research, cultural integration and artistic suggestion. Il Quaternario , 18 (1), 3-10.
Panizza, M., & Piacente, S. (2008
The aim of this paper is to explore the causal relationship between the foreign direct investment (FDI) stock in tourism and the number of international tourist arrivals in the Republic of Croatia in the period from 2000 to 2012. The study uses quarterly time series data from 2000(1) to 2012 (4). The augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) test was carried out to test the stationarity of variables. The Johansen co-integration test was used to test a long-term relationship between the variables, and given the absence of the same, the vector autoregression (VAR) model is set up. The Granger and Toda–Yamamoto test was conducted to test a short-run causality between the selected variables. The results indicated a one-way short-run causality relationship running from FDI in tourism to international tourism arrivals at a high significance level of 1%. The research results emphasise the need to establish a favourable macroeconomic environment, as well as a policy of incentive investment measures specifically targeted at the tourism sector. This would enhance the conditions for higher FDI inflow essential for qualitative and quantitative positioning of Croatian tourism compared to competing destinations.
(2), pp. 129-143
 Chang, H-S. & Hsiao, H-L. (2008). Examining the casual relationship among service recovery, perceived justice, perceived risk, and customer value in the hotel industry. The Service Industries Journal, 28(4), pp. 513-528
 Conger, J. A. & Kanungo, R. N. (1988). The Empowerment Process: Integrating Theory and Practice. Academy of Management Review, Jul88, 13(3), pp. 471-482
 Cook, S. (2002). Customer Care Excellence: How to Create an Effective Customer Focus. Fourth Edition. Kogan Page, London.
 Crawford, A. & Riscinto