Alina Petronela Alexoaei and Raluca Georgiana Robu
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This paper provides an examination of tourism in the New Member States of the European Union from the date of accession until the last year for which data is available (2014), assessing not only the importance of tourism for the New Member States economy, but also the factors and trends that might affect this industry. Predictions for tourism after joining the EU had been confident and the statistical findings confirmed that the outcomes had been to a great extent encouraging and favourable. Considerable research has been devoted to tourism in the developed countries from Europe, the so-called Old Member States, but rather less attention has been paid to tourism in the Central Eastern Europe, the New Member States region. In this regard, the paper will start with an overview of the current state of the literature on this topic, section that precedes a presentation of European bodies and policies in the travel and tourism field. According to The World Bank Database (World Tourism Organization, 2016), the number of international inbound tourists in the countries Newest Members of EU increased on average three times and in many cases this is partly a consequence of the Community’s accession policy and the market oriented policies in the new Member States (Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General of the European Commission, 2007). Time series will be analysed in order to identify specific trends in the tourism industry, but also in an attempt to characterize the European integration impact on the New Member States’ tourism. Main future challenges and opportunities in the travel and tourism industry will also be sketched, so the paper to better serve not only participants in the academic community and practitioners in the tourism business, but also financial market parties or consultants.
Mihail-Bogdan Căruțașiu, Constantin Ionescu and Horia Necula
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Manuela Liliana Mureşan, Bogdan Cristian Chiripuci and Puiu Nistoreanu
Sustainable tourism should be achieved in a balanced environment with standards that guarantee the preservation of ecological balance and prevent overuse of resources, pollution and other negative environmental impacts. In Romania, the tourism as social and economic phenomenon integrates in the unitary economy of the country having the necessary conditions for enhanced development and optimization of the tourism fund’s explotation. This paper aims to highlight different perspectives to relaunch tourism services and will be the identification of factors which contributing to the sustainability of the tourism business. In addition, there will be comparisons of competitiveness in travel and tourism sector in countries such as Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary and Romania.
Shopping centers are an important aspect of the extremely dynamic life of the 21st century consumer. Nowadays, worldwide, shopping centers represent significant multimillion euro investments, remarking themselves with bold architectures and structures and an individual brand image. Retail markets are currently under transformation by a confluence of new retailing technologies, dramatic shifts in the demographic profile and preferences of more affluent and educated shoppers. Part of the market share in modern retail moved to new forms of selling, which weakened the offer of some traditional retailers, while also creating opportunities for retailers to move and integrate their offerings with new digital tools (via electronic commerce, social commerce and mobile commerce). Meeting customer needs and increasing sales are the primary drivers behind retailers use of information systems and technology (IS/IT). New developments in IS/IT offer new opportunities and challenges for organizations and society. The current paper proposes to analyze the way digital media and information technology (computers and mobile devices) influences the virtual and physical shopping experiences, and shopping centers management consequently. The need for communication & sales channels integration, the impact of new information technologies (IT’s), the growing role of social / digital media, the balance between personalization and privacy – all represent challenges retail industry needs to currently adapt to face digitalization. E-commerce is transforming both consumer behavior and retailing business models, by greatly expanding shopping convenience, selection and affordability.
Approaching freelancing, a topical subject in regards to human resources, especially after the economic crisis of 2008, places emphasis on the main advantages of integrating it in HR activity. The economic crisis has represented a critical moment for Romanian organisations and their HR activity, thus generating a series of negative effects on profit and the employees’ individual performances. Ameliorating these negative effects is the top managers’ task, just as much as it is the HR departments, whose role has evolved towards that of a mediator in charge of creating the most appropriate climate for achieving performance, efficiency and optimal results. In order to propose a healthy implementation process, with a view to indicating the phenomenon subjected to analysis, the first step was to analyze each employee’s individual performance metrics. Then, a mathematical modeling of performance with the human resource was developed, by applying an additional linear model on 4 major tasks of human resources spending and a report on performance was calculated - the cost being connected to implementingfreelancing in HR activity in the marketing department.The present study, therefore, provides a concrete solution to the great challenge found in HR management, which is assuring that there is concordance between making spending in HR as efficient as possible and ensuring a high level of motivation and increasing performance with human resources in the organization.