Linda Dörrzapf, Anna Kovács-Győri, Bernd Resch and Peter Zeile
quantitative measure, bridging the gap between qualitative and quantitative aspects.
This article gives an overview of relevant literature on walkability with a focus on European approaches. Subsequently, we provide a new, multi-faceted definition of walkability and an approach for holistically assessing urban walkability through combining traditional geospatial analysis of spatial data, subjective information gathered through questionnaires, and individual perceptions acquired by wearable biosensors. A small case study illustrates the approach. This new integrative method
of municipal fiscal engagement ( Simpson 2013 ; Beitel 2016 )
Thanks to their institutional design, municipal banks are able to facilitate local economic activities. The general rule is that local deposits fund loans for locally based enterprises, which includes both housing and business projects. This function of integrating the local economy potentially aligns with a holistic understanding of revitalization both as a social and an economic undertaking. One of the most prominent example of municipal banking in Europe is the German Sparkasse system, a network of
, emphasizing the shifts which have occurred as a consequence of national transitions.
The Russian Federation
Moscow and Saint Petersburg were historically large cities governed together with their surrounding regions (Oblasts) within the interconnected but hierarchical structures of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Admittedly, however, the integration was imperfect with T. Colton (1995: 475) reminding us that ‘Moscow’s rulers were not keen to take on the problems of the larger city region’. The City of Moscow, for example, polluted the waterways of the
introduced to the greatest extent to date is in the field of transport and transportation. Some of the achievements are well documented. Medellín’s Smart Mobility System (SIMM) is designed to integrate ICT, communication, transportation and infrastructure ( Amar Flórez 2016 : 9) with the objective of limiting commuting time, improving security, and fighting against pollution. Thorough monitoring has proved to be effective in reducing the number of infractions at the sites monitored ( Secretaría de Movilidad de Medellín… ). The camera system visually monitors the road
Resurrection, has been based on the idea of creating a space where the monks and the people visiting the Atelier building can co-exist together ( Alexander 1977 ). The integration of various functions in the garden space will allow different social groups to stimulate and inspire each other, giving this place a great chance of coming to life within the space of the city ( Zachariasz 2008 ). The park complex includes a geometric garth-type garden and a freeform landscape park with a flower meadow. All visitors will have the opportunity to rest in the public layout of the park
participation in the neoliberal vocabulary, while they are known as urban self-management in the neo-marxist social theory ( Lefebvre 2003 ). By those mechanisms, tenants gained freedom of choice and the right to decide on the appearance of their apartments, buildings, communities and settlements, as well as on the flow of money, but also to recognize the responsibility that came with decision making. According to my respondents, this new model of functioning of housing cooperatives not only contributed to the integration of neighbours and the development of solidarity and
Metropolitan Transport Association responsible for the integration of public transport, which managed to introduce joint metropolitan ticketing. Also the Metropolitan Council of Gdańsk Bay, which includes all the presidents and mayors, operates in the region.
At the same time, the process of urban regeneration is taking place on a large scale. Some projects include entire districts (such as Nowy Port, Dolne Miasto or Biskupia Górka), some are large post-industrial areas, post-port or military areas (such as Garnizon and Młode Miasto ( Fig. 2 )) while others are small
mandating that people with a mixture of incomes reside in a housing area. Low income groups live within the neighbourhood of those in a higher economic group. As a result, they might receive assistance to improve their economic condition. Moreover, this housing policy reduces the concentration of poverty in slum areas. Thus, it increases housing accessibility for those with low incomes. It also encompasses racial and ethical integration.
Although it has sparked some controversy concerning the possibility of achieving the purposes of inclusionary housing, several pieces
cooperation as a motor for European Integration. Interaction across the border increased, especially after Poland joined the European Union in 2004 and Schengen Area in 2007 ( Stokłosa 2012 : 26).
Nowadays the border has no specific role in the national discourses in both countries but is still a memorial place for both nations in the understanding of P. Nora (1997: 14) , constituting a part of the collective memory and identity. However, as stated by O. Martinez, the border can have a different symbolism for the nation state and the border region. Thus, it is important
“equitable” development, which is trying, as far as possible, to use the economic potential of growth to meet the aspirations and expectations of the whole of society. Inclusive growth is associated with the concept of social inclusion, which is understood and measured by the degree to which equality (in terms of consumption, income, jobs and housing) is achieved ( Anand, Mishra & Peiris 2013 ). Thus, in order for growth to be sustainable and effective in reducing poverty, it must have an integrative and inclusive nature ( Berg & Ostry 2011 ). Cities are epicentres of