In this paper, the author attempts to reconstruct the aesthetic views of Paweł Mykietyn, a leading Polish composer of the middle generation. Since Mykietyn has never presented his views comprehensively, the author reconstructs his opinions on the basis of published interviews with the composer, focusing on his ideas regarding musical and nonmusical inspirations, the significance of mathematical procedures in the compositional process, traditional musical forms, the role of quotations and self-quotations, experimentation with microtones and musical time, as well as the concept of music as autobiography.
The following text is an overview study which defines the basic phenomena and effective factors of Gestalt drama and outlines some of the researches carried out in this area by the author during recent years. Gestalt drama is the name of a specific psychotherapeutic approach applied by the author in his practice, which combines Gestalt therapy with expressive approaches (especially with dramatherapy, theatrotherapy and fairytale-therapy). Linking Gestalt therapy and expressive techniques results in a specific psychotherapeutic approach whose versatility and holistic conception makes it suitable not only for psychotherapy but also for self-development of people with special needs, as it has the potential to meet the higher psychological needs even when the lower needs are not sufficiently saturated. The article further presents the interpretation of the partial results of research focusing on the analysis of integration performance where gestaltdrama techniques have been applied. These performances resulted from one-day dramatherapy workshops with clients suffering from mental retardation and with clients with behavioural disorders. This includes the analysis of differences between dramatical expression within the above target groups.
One of the noteworthy Polish sacred musical works in the last decade is the Missa Pro Peccatis Mundi by Grzegorz Duchnowski (b. 1971). The composition has its own, extremely interesting formal traits, an intriguing stylistic and expressive character, and meaningful symbolism.
The Mass was composed in 2004 for The General Józef Wybicki Representative Band of the Polish Armed Forces, with the performing collaboration of the Band with a mixed choir in mind. The work, a series of Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei, was written for a large force. The vocal parts consist of a mixed choir ((sopranos, altos, tenors, basses) a mezzo-soprano solo; the instrumental parts consist of wood wind instruments (flute I and II, oboe I and II, bassoon I and II, clarinet I, II and III, bass clarinet, soprano saxophone, alto saxophone I and II, tenor saxophone I and II, and baritone saxophone), brass instruments (horn I, II, III and IV, trumpet I, II, III and IV, tenor saxhorn I and II, baritone saxhorn, tuba I and II), and, additionally, the piano and rich percussion instruments.
Duchnowski’s work combines the contemporary language of music with many composing solutions from the earlier epochs. The achievements of the musical art of 20th century and of the present period include inter alia minimal music, motorism, orphism style, the method of tonal centers, and modern harmonic language. From the older tradition - medieval music, Renaissance, Baroque, and partly classicism - the principle of strict diatonicism, modality, chorale melody, and archaisms at the tonal-harmonic level are derived. In many sections the vocal parts and instruments are led in parallel fifths in the form of a parallel organum. There are also chorale and song reminiscences, polyphonic parts a cappella with a Renaissance-Baroque tone and fairly elaborate fugues. These phenomena are matched by a transparent segmentation of form.
The level of expression is suggestively shaped. For the joyful, laudable segments of the texts the composer selects a fast tempo, motoric rhythm, the ostinato, and lively rhythm: he refers to the esthetics of vitalism in these parts. The other parts show different faces of expression: they are stern, ascetic, meditative, contemplative, hymnic, and sometimes gloomy or mysterious. Worth noting is the fact that - according to inspirations dating back to older epochs - the following categories do not appear: the lyrical, the sentimental, the emotional, or the poetic, which shows an evident distance towards the musical legacy of the 19th century. All these characteristics make the Missa Pro Peccatis Mundi fall into the neoclassicist trend.
The work is distinguished by its material cohesion and formal integration. Among the many ways of achieving this integration the fundamental role is played by the thematic use of the first four tones of the Bogurodzica [Mother of God] song and by the figure (derived from these tones) of imaginatio crucis. These structures that are present in many segments integrate the work. Owing to this, the composition is characterized by the unity of substance and by internal thematic coherence. At the same time, the imaginatio crucis reveals the symbolic message of the Mass. The whole composition by Duchnowski is imbued with this figuration, which is a very clear sign in light of the title of the piece: Mass for the Sins of the World; the sins, which Christ redeemed by dying on the cross.
The themes of the four elements - with their extremely rich symbolism - have been taken up by many artists. The forming of knowledge about nature, initiated already in the ancient times, resulted in the four-component conception of the elements, which distinguished earth, water, air and fire. These elements aroused and shaped the imagination of many artists and composers. After all, fire means warmth and light but also conflagration and destruction; water keeps one alive but it also floods; wind in turn revives but it also causes devastation; similarly, earth is the mother of all riches, but at the same time it hides destructive forces that lie dormant in its mysterious interior.
he present article discusses the problems of inspiration by the element of water, found in musical pieces and in plastic arts; at the same time it places the subject matter so defined in the perspective of correspondence and integration of arts. The study presents the analysis of the problems of inspiration by the water element in reference, inter alia, to the relationships and parallels occurring between the sphere of architecture and music, and to the subject matter of the river, sea and ocean present in painting and music, occasionally taking achievements in sculpture and literature into consideration. The principal object of observation was music. Therefore, the works of the following composers have been discussed: Ottorino Respighi, Francisco Tarrega, Karol Szymanowski, Bedřich Smetana, Nikołaj Rimsky-Korsakov, Claude Debussy, and Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis. The present study is first of all a contribution to interdisciplinary education, being chiefly meant for music teachers.
The specificity of cultural tradition of the Uniate Church in the Commonwealth [Republic] of Poland was the integration of elements of the Eastern and the Western Church tradition. This process intensified throughout the 18th century and was observable first of all in the church interiors as well as in architecture. The result of assimilation of Latin elements was inter alia similarities in the appearance of Uniate and Catholic churches - more often in the western and northern regions of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Kiev. In the church interior, the iconostasis was replaced by a set of Baroque altars - the main and usually two side ones. Pews, pulpits, confessionals and even pipe organs appeared. In the Eastern-Church architecture the three-part layout (the chancel, nave, and women’s section) was replaced by the two-part layout (the chancel and the large rectangular nave covered by gabled roofs with an ave-bell turret). The richest form of the Latinized Uniate church body was the churches with the two-tower front facade (inter alia Buśno, Kodeniec, Dywin [Dzivin], Hołoby [Goloby], Olble). After the Partitions, new patterns of Orthodox Church architecture were introduced in the Russian partition, in particular after the liquidation of the Uniate Church (in the Russian Empire - 1839, in the Kingdom of Poland - 1875). Uniate churches were replaced by Orthodox churches built in the Russian “national” style. After the devastations caused by the two World Wars, after the practice of demolishing Orthodox churches in the Lublin region in 1938, and after demolishing them under the Soviet Union and People’s Poland, there are very few Uniate churches left. In order to have a complete picture of the Uniate religious tradition, archives have to be searched (records of inspections, and inventories). The inspection records of 1788 describe the Uniate church (built in 1751) in the village of Michale on the Bug as one with “three towers”. The records show a similar description of the no longer extant Uniate church in Wielka Hłusza (Velyka Hlusha) in Volhynia: according to a later description it had two towers with a prominent ave-bell turret. It could be assumed that the Uniate church in Michale had a similar appearance. This church, converted in 1881 in the Russian “national” style”, completely lost its former appearance.
Artistic personality was interpreted in various ways through the ages. The power of creativity, individual perseverance and imaginative force made the artist a special person, different from most people, being equipped with unique, unrepeatable skills. This paper presents some of the most important approaches to the personality of the creator, from the questionable Freudian theory to the psycho-biological approaches of Peckham. Through his works, the artist expresses not only his personal anxieties or emotional ardent feelings but also, reflects a conscious level of the social group, being himself adapted to human values, characteristic of the era and society to which he belongs. Maybe, sometimes, wrong regarded as deviant personalities or too much exposed to excesses, artists remain, undoubtedly, brave in Creativity, in the cultural and social original development process. Their integration in this ensemble completes the picture we have about development and social evolution, and gives us access to more elevated human values.
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