functional virus-specific CD8 T cells in the same host, Cell Rep., 2016, 16(5), 1243-1252. 27452473 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.06.078 Schurich A. Pallett L.J. Jajbhay D. Wijngaarden J. Otano I. Gill U.S. et al Distinct metabolic requirements of exhausted and functional virus-specific CD8 T cells in the same host Cell Rep 2016 16 5 1243 – 1252
 Mason W.S., Gill U.S., Litwin S., Zhou Y., Peri S., Pop O., et al., HBV DNA integration and clonal hepatocyte expansion in chronic hepatitis B patients considered immune tolerant, Gastroenterology
Guo-liang Zhang, Jian-bo Ding, Shuang-jie Li, Xi Zhang, Yi Xu, Hua-sheng Yang, Dan Wei, Qin Li, Qing-sheng Shi, Qing-xiong Zhu, Tong Yang, Zi-qiang Zhuo, Yi-mei Tian, Hao-jie Zheng, Liu-ping Tang, Xin-ying Zou, Tao Wen and Xiu-hui Li
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.
Methods A total of 452 patients with common HFMD were randomly assigned to receive Western medicine alone (n = 220) or combined with TCM (Reduning or Xiyanping injections) (n = 232). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of rash/herpes disappearance within 5 days, while secondary outcomes included the incidence rate for fever, cough, lethargy, agitation, and vomiting clearance within 5 days.
Results The rash/herpes disappearance rate was 45.5% (100/220) in Western medicine therapy group, and 67.2% (156/232) in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group, with significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, TCM remarkably increased the incidence rate of secondary disappearance, which was 56.4% in Western medicine therapy group and 71.4% in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group (P = 0.001). No drug-related adverse events were observed.
Conclusions It’s suggested that the integrative TCM and Western medicine therapy achieved a better therapeutic efficacy. TCM may become an important complementary therapy on relieving the symptoms of HFMD.
S. Prakobwong, W. Gunnula, S. Chaipibool, B. Nimala, J. Sangthopo, N. Sirivetthumrong and A. Ribas
An integrated epidemiological study of Opisthorchis viverrini consisting of risk factors analysis and parasitation prevalence determination in humans, as well as the assessment the roles of host reservoirs (dogs and cats) and intermediate hosts (cyprinid fish) was carried out in the vicinity of Huay Luang dam, Udon Thani province, in the north east of Thailand. The survey was conducted from June 2014 to July 2016 in three sub-districts. Fecal samples were collected from 5,347 participants in 22 villages and the overall prevalence of O. viverrini was found to be 31.5 %. Risk factors for liver fluke infection were determined from questionnaires analysis which sought demographic data and information about the eating behaviors of the participants. The behavior of raw fish consumption correlated significantly with parasitation in the studied areas. The risk factors for O. viverrini infection in humans were associated significantly with age, education, and habitation within a two kilometer range from nearby water and food sources. Questionnaires showed that the drug treatments were not always appropriate. The stools of domestic dogs (n = 468) and cats (n = 262) collected for parasitological analysis and results showed that the zoonotic role of dogs should not be underestimated as has been done previously/in past. The incidence of O. viverrini metacercariae in four cyprinid fishes Barbonymus gonionotus (n = 124), Cyclocheilichthys repasson (n = 843), Hampala dispar (n = 276) and Henicorhynchus siamensis n = 946), were determined and overall values ranged from 2.4 % to 23.1 %. There was a seasonal variation in metacercariae intensity which ranged from 1 – 125 metacercariae per fish. The study concluded that transmission ecology should be taken into consideration in developing of control strategies against opisthorchiasis.
M. Elshishka, V. Peneva, S. Lazarova and S. Kumari
Trichodorus similis associated with potato in the Czech Republic was described and illustrated. This study provides additional information on morphometrical and morphological characters of T. similis and integrates morphological and genetic data obtained by species-specific polymerase chain reaction and sequencing (ITS1 and D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rDNA). The knowledge on morphological variability and genetic diversity is extended, and a rapid and accurate molecular diagnostics was successfully applied.
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