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English language pre-service and in-service teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards integration of students with learning difficulties

Languages to Learners with Special Educational Needs: e-textbook for foreign language teachers. Nitra: Constantine the Philosopher University. Rodriguez, C. C., Garro-Gil, N. (2014). Inclusion and Integration on Special Education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 191, 1323-1327. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.04.488 Ruijs, N.M., & Peetsma, T. T. (2009). Effects of inclusion on students with and without special educational needs reviewed. Educational Research Review, 4(2), 67-79. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2009.02.002 Russak

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Values and Attitudes of Nordic Language Teachers Towards Second Language Education

effectiveness for language minority students. Retrieved from http://www.thomasandcollier.com/assets/1997_thomas-collier97-1.pdf Wayne, T., & Collier, V. (2001). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students. Long-term academic achievement . Retrieved from http://cmmr.usc.edu//CollierThomasExReport.pdf . Zenou, Y. (2008). How common is integration policy in Europe? Stockholm University and Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN). Retrieved from http://www.parisschoolofeconomics.eu/IMG/pdf/ArticleZenou3.pdf .

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Language Challenges in Global and Regional Integration

lingua frankensteinia? English in European integration and globalisation. A ‘Forum’ with responses by seven scholars and a closing word by Robert Phillipson. World Englishes , 27/2, 250–284. Phillipson, R. (2009). Linguistic imperialism continued . New York: Routledge. Phillipson, R. (2011). Robert Phillipson responds to Humphrey Tonkin’s Language and the ingenuity gap in science: The empire of scientific English. Critical Inquiry in Language Studies , 8/1, 117–124. Phillipson, R. (2014). Americanization and Englishization as processes of global

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What is advertising without blending? Advertisements in women’s magazines

Džanić, Nihada, Sanja Berberović (2012). Conceptual integration theory in text-image advertisements. Akbarov, Azamat, Vivian Cook, eds. Contemporary Foreign Language Education: Linking Theory into Practice . Sarajevo: IBU, 559–569. Evans, Vyvyan, Melanie Green (2006). Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Fairclough, Norman (2001). Language and Power (2 nd edn.). Harlow: Longman. Fauconnier, Gilles (2007). Mental spaces. In Geeraerts, Dirk, Hubert Cuyckens eds. The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive

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in ExELL
Exploring language attitudes in ELF research: Contrasting approaches in conversation

& Jack W. Brehm (eds.), Attitude organization and change: An analysis of consistency among attitude components, 1-14. New Haven: Yale University Press. Ryan, Ellen Bouchard, Howard Giles & Richard J. Sebastian. 1982. An integrative perspective for the study of attitudes toward language variation. In Ellen Bouchard Ryan & Howard Giles (eds.), Attitudes towards language variation: Social and applied contexts, 1-19. London: Edward Arnold. Saldaña, Johnny. 2016. The coding manual for qualitative researchers, 3rd edn. London: Sage

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Why Do Adults Decide to Learn a Minority Language? A Study of the Motivation(S) of Potential New Speakers of West Frisian

Summary

This study focuses on the motivation of adults learning a minority language, based on a tripartite model: integrative and instrumental (Gardner & Lambert, 1959; 1972) and personal (see Benson, 1991) motivation. Adults learning a minority language are potential new speakers, a group that has been described as central to language revitalisation (see Pujolar & O’Rourke, 2018). Since the motivation to learn these languages does not seem to be linked to economic success or wider job opportunities, researchers have taken interest in knowing what drives people to learn a minority language (e.g., O’Rourke & DePalma, 2016). In this study, (potential) new speaker motivations were investigated by means of ten open-ended interviews with adult learners of West Frisian—a minority language spoken in the Netherlands—in two different settings: Afûk Frisian courses (a more traditional learning setting) and Bernlef Frisian courses (a student association that offers informal courses for their members). The results show a predominance of integrative and personal motivation (also found in O’Rourke & DePalma, 2016), but not exclusively (as suggested by Jaffe, 2015) since the language appears to be tightly linked to the province and it is deemed beneficial—to a certain extent—for socioeconomic success in the province.

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Teaching Syrian Students in Turkish Schools: Experiences of Teachers

Summary

The Syrian civil war affected Turkey so much that approximately three and a half million Syrians live in Turkey. Ministry of Education implemented an inclusive approach to schooling of Syrian asylum-seekers’ children by educating them in public schools with their Turkish peers in the same classrooms in 2016 in order to address their educational needs, integration into the Turkish culture, and to prevent generation gap. Education, as a basic human right and as a way of integration into the Turkish society, is provided for free at all levels of education in Turkey. The inclusion of Syrian students in the Turkish school environment is quite a new experience for Turkish teachers and if the inclusion process is not managed properly, it may have negative effects on both students and their teachers. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the experiences of teachers teaching Syrian students in the city of Kilis, where the number of asylum-seekers outnumbered the local population and almost one-fifth of the students in public schools are Syrians. The guiding question of this research was “What are the lived experiences of primary and middle school teachers educating Syrian children in culturally inclusive classrooms?” Five teachers from four different primary and middle schools were interviewed. The six open-ended interview questions allowed the participants to reflect on their experiences. The data were collected during the spring semester of 2017. The interviews were analyzed according to thematic methods. Three themes emerged: language barrier, lack of family support, and teachers’ lack of pedagogical skills to teach asylum-seeker students.

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Year of Intensive Language Learning, A Special Program to Rocket Hungarian Students’ Foreign Language Proficiency: A Success Story?

Summary

Hungary has witnessed several major attempts to improve the foreign language proficiency of students in primary and secondary school education since the political changes of the 1990s, as both international and national surveys reflect a dramatically low ratio of Hungarian population that self-reports to communicate in any foreign language at any level. Among other initiatives, a major one to boost students’ foreign language competence has been the Year of Intensive Language Learning (YILL), introduced in 2004, which allows secondary schools to integrate an extra school year when the majority of the contact hours are devoted to foreign languages. The major objectives of YILL are as follows: 1) to offer a state-financed and school-based alternative to the widely spread profit-oriented private language tuition; thus 2) granting access to intensive language learning and 3) enhancing equal opportunities; and as a result of the supporting measures, 4) to improve school language education in general. YILL is exemplary in its being monitored from the launch of the first classes to the end of their five-year studies, involving three large-scale, mixed-method surveys and numerous smaller studies. Despite all the measures to assist the planning and the implementation, however, the program does not appear to be an obvious success. The paper introduces the background, reviews and synthesizes the related studies and surveys in order to evaluate the program, and argues that with more considerate planning, the YILL ‘hungaricum’ would yield significantly more benefits.

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Apprentissage du Français de la Douane dans le Cadre d’un Dispositif Hybride

Sommaire

Les enseignants des langues étrangères utilisaient très longtemps des méthodes traditionnelles comme celle de grammaire-traduction. Le travail des professeurs et des andragogues est plus complexe aujourd’hui qu’auparavant. Les trois dernières décennies ont vu de nombreux changements : évolution technologique, pluridisciplinarité des sciences, globalisation. L’enseignement actuel des langues étrangères s’appuie sur des sciences aussi diverses que la linguistique, la psychologie, l’informatique, les sciences de communication en se basant sur le Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues3 dont le but est l’identification et la définition des facettes théoriques de l’apprentissage d’une langue. Cet article analyse l’enseignement du français aux douaniers lituaniens en mettant l’accent sur des approches et des techniques actives, en particulier sur l’approche hybride. Il analyse les programmes proposés par le Centre de la formation des douaniers de Vilnius en se concentrant sur une étude plus détaillée du programme de l’apprentissage hybride en français pour lequel le français de spécialité est une priorité. Cette approche appliquée à l’enseignement des langues étrangères, se révèle séduisante pour les adultes car elle facilite l’intégration à la vie professionnelle. Elle participe également à la réalisation de la politique de multilinguisme grâce à la coopération entre les enseignants des langues étrangères et les apprenants. Plus que d’autres, elle favorise également les synergies interdisciplinaires grâce à l’utilisation des nouvelles technologies et des documents authentiques dans des domaines très variés : de la vérification douanière des véhicules aux questions d’éthique des douanes. Cet article présente enfin 5 composantes de l’acquisition lexicale qui accompagnent la formation professionnelle des douaniers en français : linguistique, discursive, référentielle, socioculturelle et stratégique.

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The Potential of Blended ESOL Courses: Attitudes and Practices Among the UK Immigrants

Summary

A considerable number of immigrants in the United Kingdom confront challenges as they acculturate into a new way of life, where language competence significantly influences their social, economic and cultural integration. Such immigrants are often at an educational and social disadvantage compared to the majority of population due to their different social and cultural backgrounds, prior educational experience and the lack of language competencies. The use of technologies for teaching / learning the host country language has been emphasized in European Strategy 2020 policy. Although learning of English usually takes place very naturally in an English-speaking informal environment, formal educational institutions in the UK and immigrants’ native countries tend to be very helpful as well. Assuming that such learners of English usually need more intensively-paced learning and knowing that professional commitments or other reasons can prevent them from coming to classes, blended learning can help them reach their goals faster and not lose connection with their native country. In order to develop insight into such English learners’ needs as well as to identify teaching forms that could help in meeting these needs, this study used a survey to explore the most important factors influencing the development of the UK immigrants’ English language competence and students’ general practice of using ICT for English learning and their attitudes towards ICT in foreign language learning. Furthermore, the research aimed to answer the question whether a blended strategy of language learning organized by their native countries institutions would be able to positively influence the learning outcomes while maintaining a connection with their native country and culture. The research sample was a group of English learners enrolled in an ESOL course. To explore the needs, experiences and attitudes of the participants, a quantitative research methodology was applied and short semi-structured interviews were conducted. The present research has demonstrated that the advancement of technologies has increased the use of ICT not only for personal purposes but also for work and studies. The students have indicated quite a frequent use of various on-line English study tools and programmes and have demonstrated a generally positive attitude towards blended English learning.

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