example, Steven Lowenstein’s remarks on the religious landscape in German Jewry, in: Michael A. Meyer (ed.), German-Jewish History in Modern Times. Volume 3: Integration in Dispute 1871-1918 , New York 1997, pp. 103-108. The conference sought to critically fill in some of these historiographical lacunae by bringing the “middle movement” to the center of scientific attention.
The most prominent and articulate representative of moderate reform was Zacharias Frankel (1801–1875), a Prague born rabbi and scholar. Brämer, Rabbiner Zacharias Frankel ; Ismar Schorsch
, with the aim of preventing dissidence and rebellion:
In the climate of the Restoration the Hapsburgs had extended […] to the Jews of Veneto the legislation already in force in Lombardy and the other provinces of the Empire, the result of their Jewish policy from Charles VI onwards, particularly that of Joseph II. Now they also tried to intervene in the cultural situation of the Jews, whom they wanted to integrate and make good, faithful subjects, but also subject to careful control. The resolution of Francis I of 29 January 1820, as well as making secular education
as well. Dohm, Ueber die bürgerliche Verbesserung der Juden 1:143-144. Civic improvement was predicated on and promoted through Jews’ religious, cultural, and social transformation. Johann Michaelis, the eminent German scholar of Judaism, challenged Dohm and argued that Jews would never integrate themselves into German society because their hopes would continue to be directed at their return to Palestine. Jews could hardly be convinced otherwise, claimed Michaelis, because their rabbinic authorities understood it this way, as did Isaac Newton and John Locke
Halevi was not an outright proponent of irrationalism, holding religion to contain truths that reason must reject. Both Breslau scholars, Graetz and Kaufmann, insist that Halevi’s re-establishing of the rights of religious faith, as opposed to speculative thought, is not necessarily dependent on a rejection of reason as such—a position that they obviously felt to be a precondition for their agenda of Halevi’s integration into their own concept of a spiritually renewed Judaism in modernity.
In the years to follow, the study of medieval Jewish philosophy within the
human population. If we wish to construct an honest narrative structure for a diminished human remnant, our model must integrate a conception of itself as temporary, in a limited time scale we are not generally willing to contemplate (even to the extent that we are willing to contemplate such degradation).
The need to confront the possibility of extinction, if we are to address diminution seriously, may enable us to appreciate, whether or not we wish to do so, the emotional dilemmas facing the Central European bourgeoisie excoriated by Benjamin. In his words, such a