In the following paper we will discuss about the situation of the Romanian gypsies living in Spain and the main problems involved by their presence in this country. We will analyze the causes that made them emigrate to Spain, together with a historical analysis of this process, the living conditions they have (housing, employment, education...). Also, we will present the social problems they suffer because of their particular culture, other than Spanish, the main settlements where they chosen to live in Spain and social acceptance from the point of view of the Spanish population. The present article is the direct result of a research program that was developed almost two years ago by the Research Center for Regional Development and European Integration of the University of Bucharest, part of a larger research program regarding the ethnic minorities of Romania. The main important aspect of this research is the fact that we used two target groups interviewed both in Romania and Spain and also, we used official information regarding Romanian gypsy located actually on Spanish territory, according with the official Spanish census. This way we managed to gather a large quantity of information and to provide to the reader a closer to reality image of the status of Romanian gypsy presently living inside Spanish border. Also, the novelty brought by this research is the fact that we tried to present the social and integration problems encountered by the Romanian gypsies located in the cities or villages of Spain. The article might be considered a starting point for future research upon this subject.
The strengthening of social cohesion, the globalization and the opening of the market to free competition, the expanding of the public – private partnership and the sustainable development are the main questions which arise today about the future of services of general interest. The current economic and financial crisis recalls that the main role of the services of general interest lies in ensuring the social and territorial cohesion. At the same time, the crisis has a significant impact on the public sector due to the pressure on public finances and it is essential to make every effort possible in order to keep providing these services and improve their quality. The upcoming accession of Romania to the European Union requires precise criteria for guaranteeing the performance and quality of public services of general interest and, in particular, the development of network industries and the link between these elements is a prerequisite for facilitating the integration, increasing citizens welfare and achieving in a short time the community rules and standards. The role of services of general interest is the sustainable development of a territory and their contribution in maintaining the balance between environment and society, exploiting the available resources in a particular plan, fighting against social exclusion and isolation. Overall, the man has an important role, he can transform the environment, because he is considered an integral part thereof, subject only to maintaining the balance between himself and the other components of the environment; at the same time, he must accept his role as a stabilizing factor in his relationship with nature. Services of general interest in a region should positively influence the life of people in order to achieve the long-term development vision by transforming the region’s functioning of institutions. Sustainable development means recognizing that economy, environment and social welfare are interdependent namely that affecting the environment in terms of quality will sooner or later have a negative influence on economic development and the quality of life of each one of us. The human component is an essential urban mobility, and every type of public service must be carried out in a planned system in terms of territory. A responsible demographic capable of long-term strategies for rational use of resources, ensures sustainability planning. Sustainability does not imply an imposed proactive strategy. If an area has resources, a vigorous and enterprising demographic system, fair and profitable exchanges with the outside, it is sustainable, thus it can evolve without outside intervention.
In conducting the scientific endeavor we started from the assumption that directing the efforts of local communities based on the principles of sustainable development, the degree of socio-economic development of the Tecuci Plain will be improved in a time span of 25-30 years. The development of the plain is below its potential but it presents viable resources that can lead to the shaping of sustainable development strategies applicable at territorial level. The various works consulted point out that the sustainable development of an area requires a complex precede that provides the analysis of all factors which can influence human settlements’ development of perspective. In this sense it entails identifying the natural conditions of the Tecuci Plain and how they are reflected by the socio-economic development of human settlements, knowing that this space is identified at regional and national level as an important agricultural center that utilizes rationally the land. The quintessence that can accelerate the sustainable development of the territory is given by the accessibility to the local and regional context of the Tecuci Plain. Accessibility is also a prerequisite in establishing a network of centers polarizing localities that maintain functional interdependencies and diffusion of services across sectors. The knowledge of space and disorders diagnosing are absolutely necessary for integrating development policies to implement the phenomenon of territorial, social and economic cohesion. Rural settlements of the Tecuci Plain radiate around the only urban center, the city of Tecuci, center that tries to regain its identity and its importance by channeling efforts to promote agricultural products in the region, given that the secondary and tertiary sectors fail to gain ground in front of the basic occupation of 60% of the administrative units that are part of the plain. The rural component from the Tecuci Plain is actually a whole scale (system) “built” on a macro scale with three elements (subsystems): the physical subsystem (environmental and natural conditions), the social subsystem (rural population and habitat rural) and economical subsystem (external physical environment transformed by the rural population).
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