western United States ( Dong et al., 1998 ), central west Bulgaria ( Dimitrov and Georgiev, 2011 ), Central Valley, California ( Romero and Berber, 2018 ) and so on. Global Positioning System (GPS) data provide a good opportunity to study the current geodynamic processes, but the basic question arising in this case is how far the present-day results can be extrapolated back in time. An approach to address this question is to integrate GNSS with historical triangulation data in spite of the fact that the positional accuracy of the old triangulations is usually in the
-quality mapping. The flexibility of the usage of the GMT modules for data modelling proves it to be an excellent tool set for the geomatics and cartographic data visualization.
The GMT compatibility with Unix commands enables a cartographer to insert echo, rm Unix commands directly in the GMT code and to integrate GMT data modelling with further data processing to Matlab. Unix echo is a command available in shell Unix scripts. Its meaning is as follows. It puts the string texts passed as arguments to the visualization on the computer screen or printed output. In other words
Aleksandra Bujakiewicz, Jakub Markiewicz, Krzysztof Bakuła and Dorota Zawierska
Aguilera, D., Lahoz, J., Finat, J., Martinez, J., Fernandez, J., & San Josem, J. (2006). Terrestrial laser scanning and low-cost aerial photogrammetry in the archeological modeling of a Jewish tanneries. International Archives of Photogram., Remote Sensing, Volume XXXVIII-5/W1
Alshawabkeh,Y., & Haala, N. (2004). Integration of Digital Photogrammetry and Laser Scanning for Heritage Documentation. International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Volume XXXV, B5, Istambul
Bakuła, K. (2010
Aien A., Rajabifard A, Kalantari M., Williamson I. & Shojaei D. (2014): Development of XML Schemas for Implementation of a 3D Cadastral Data Model, 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres 9-11 November 2014, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
El-Mekawy M., Paasch J. & Paulsson J. (2014): Integration of 3D Cadastre, 3D Property Formation and BIM in Sweden 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres, 9-11 November 2014, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
García J.M.O., Soriano L.I.V., Velasco A. & Varés M. (2011
The paper presents current trends in determining the dynamic deformations of bridge structures through the exploitation of geodetic measurements by accelerometers. The main aim of the paper is to demonstrate the practical application of these measurements on the cycling bridge over the river Morava in Devínska Nová Ves. Possibilities for the processing and analysis of accelerometer measurements by spectral analysis are described. An evaluation of the results is realized based on the modal characteristics from a numerical model designed by the finite element method.
Dariusz Tomaszewski, Jacek Rapiński and Renata Pelc-Mieczkowska
Farrel, J. A. (2008). Aided navigation GPS with high rate sensors. Mc Graw Hill.
Farrell Jay A., J. W. (2017). GNSS/INS Integration. springer handbook of global navigation satellite systems (S. I. Publishing, Ed.). Springer International Publishing.
Foxlin, E. (2005). Pedestrian tracking with shoe-mounted inertial sensors. IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl(25(6)), 38-46.
Freescale. (2012). Implementing a tilt-compensated eCompass using accelerometer and magnetometer sensors. Freescale Semiconductor Application Note
.” Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , Vol. 71, No. 4, 377–389.
Ito, K., Xiong, K. (2000). „Gaussian Filters for Nonlinear Filtering Problems.” IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , 45(5), 910–927.
Kalman R. E., (1960) „A New Approach to Linear Filtering and Prediction Problems”, Trans. of the ASME - Journal of Basic Engineering, p. 35-45.
Kaniewski, P., (2006) „Aircraft Positioning with INS/GNSS Integrated System” Molecular and Quantum Acoustics, Vol. 27, p. 149-168.
Kim, H et al. (2003) „An Ultra Tightly coupled GPS/INS Integration using
world leading brands. One of them – Mala RAMAC/CU II unit – was used for the experiment. The operation of another unit, fully dedicated to the performance of surveys aimed at locating underground utilities, has been described in more detail. The DS2000 GPR system is a new version of the proven solution, to which Leica has introduced significant improvements as far as geodetic surveys are concerned. The authors have verified, for example, the possibility of integrating echograms with coordinates in the local systems in real time thanks to the use of radio or Bluetooth
The field of processing information provided by measurement results is one of the most important components of geodetic technologies. The dynamic development of this field improves classic algorithms for numerical calculations in the aspect of analytical solutions that are difficult to achieve. Algorithms based on artificial intelligence in the form of artificial neural networks, including the topology of connections between neurons have become an important instrument connected to the problem of processing and modelling processes. This concept results from the integration of neural networks and parameter optimization methods and makes it possible to avoid the necessity to arbitrarily define the structure of a network. This kind of extension of the training process is exemplified by the algorithm called the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH), which belongs to the class of evolutionary algorithms. The article presents a GMDH type network, used for modelling deformations of the geometrical axis of a steel chimney during its operation.
Marek Woźniak, Ewa Świerczyńska and Sławomir Jastrzębski
This paper analyzes selected aspects of the use of video-tacheometric technology for inventorying and documenting geometric features of objects. Data was collected with the use of the video-tacheometer Topcon Image Station IS-3 and the professional camera Canon EOS 5D Mark II. During the field work and the development of data the following experiments have been performed: multiple determination of the camera interior orientation parameters and distortion parameters of five lenses with different focal lengths, reflectorless measurements of profiles for the elevation and inventory of decorative surface wall of the building of Warsaw Ballet School. During the research the process of acquiring and integrating video-tacheometric data was analysed as well as the process of combining “point cloud” acquired by using video-tacheometer in the scanning process with independent photographs taken by a digital camera. On the basis of tests performed, utility of the use of video-tacheometric technology in geodetic surveys of geometrical features of buildings has been established.