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Corruption and Combating Corruption: A Framework for Peace, Human Rights and Sustainable Development in Post-Independent Africa

References Bamidele, O. (2013). Corruption, Conflict and Sustainable Development in African States. The African Symposium 13(1): 42-51. Bank Ki, M. (2015). Message on International Anti-Corruption Day (09 December 2015) < > accessed 04 May 2018 Cameroon Bar Association. (2015). Report on Human Rights in Cameroon (1st edn, Cameroon: Cameroon Human Rights Commission of the Cameroon Bar). Eliasonn

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Can legal remedy be used to address bullying and cyberbullying in South African schools?

. Reyneke, J.M., & Reyneke, R.P. (2011). Process and best practices at the Mangaung One-Stop Child Justice Centre. South African Journal of Criminal Justice, 24(2), 137-163. SAHRC (South African Human Rights Commission). (2006). Report of the public hearing on school-based violence. Retrieved from: (accessed: August 5, 2018). Sullivan, K. (2011). The anti-bullying handbook, 2nd edition. London: Sage. Tłuściak-Deliowska, A, (2018). Using Technology

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Ethno-Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: Implications on Women

(5) 81-86. British Council/UKaid (2012). Gender in Nigeria Report 2012. Improving the lives of Girls and Women in Nigeria. Issues, Policies Action 2nd Edition. Daily Sun, March 5, 2013: 6. Dukor, M. (198). Religion and the Nigerian nationhood. In Momoh, C .S. etal (eds). Nigerian Studies in Religious Tolerance. Vol. 111 pp57-68. Eni A .and Obaji S. (2016) Internal Displacement in Nigeria and the Case for Human Rights Protection of Displaced Persons. Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization, 51, 26

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Private Military and Security Companies: The End of State Responsibility?

Journal of Political Theory, 11: 2, 131-154. Perret, A. (2013). Privatization of the war on drugs in Mexico and Colombia: Limiting the Application of Humanitarian Law and Endangering Human Rights. Interdisciplinary Journal of Human Rights Law, 7: 1, 45-67. Rothe, D. L., & Ross, J. I. (2010). Private Military Copntractors, Crime and the terrain of Unaccountability. Justice Quaterly, 2: 4, 593-617. Rousseau, E. (2014). International Law and Private Military Companies: a Search for Clarity Droit International, sociétés militaires et conflit armé: Entre

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Execution of Sentence of Life Imprisonment in Albania, in Violation of Fundamental Human Rights

European Cimmittee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Strasbourg 27 June 2007, “Actual/Real life sentences” Halissat Ismaël, Art. “ La Perpétuité réelle existe-t-elle en France?” Le Monde, 12.01.2016 Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Albania European Convention of Human Rights The Constitution of the Republic of Italy, 01/01/1948 The Constitution of the Republic of Albania Law no. 8417, dated 21.10.1998 Spanish Constitution, 27 .12

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Rising Islamophobic Discourses in Europe and Fight Against Islamophobia on the Basis of International Organizations


European Civilization was built on the concepts of multiculturalism, tolerance, and dialogue but in the post-Cold War period, without considering these concepts, some European politicians, scientists, and the press have associated concepts of conflict, terror, disintegration, exclusion, and assimilation with Islam. Anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim attitudes are viewed as a new coherent ideology to replace anticommunism following the post-collapse period of the Soviet Union. Thus, a new enemy image and an exclusionist and alienating discourse aimed especially at Muslim societies in Europe were created after the 1990s. Subsequently, this new discourse diffusing across the European continent is referred to as “Islamophobia”. Gradually Muslim immigrants are perceived to be the number one fundamental cause of politic, economic and social issues in European countries so Islamophobic discourses have intensified following the 90s. The aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the actions of terror organizations claiming to commit their attacks in the name of Islam in the world -and especially in Europe- have contributed to the spread of Islamophobia across Europe. Extreme-right wings in pursuit of taking advantage of all these negative circumstances for political gain attempted to find public ground by reflecting Islam as a religion of violence and Muslims as ‘terrorists.’ In this article, it is argued that concrete Islamophobic discourses erode some certain values such as human rights, democracy, plurality and multiculturalism, which Europe was established on these. It is also showed that actions of various extreme-right parties and other wings in different European countries accelerate this process. Policies adopted by international organizations to fight against Islamophobia will be analysed and the problems encountered in these efforts will also be presented.

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Legal Protection for Prisoners for a Conditional Exemption in the Perspective of Human Rights

References Sunggono, B. and Harianto, A. (1994). Legal Aid and Human Rights. Bandung: Mandar Maju. Poernomo, B. (1985). With the implementation of the Criminal Prison Correctional System. Yogyakarta: Liberty. Kanter, E.Y. and Sianturi, S.R. (2002). Principles of Criminal Law in Indonesia and Practice. 3rd Edition. Jakarta: Storia Grafika. Kelsen, H. (2006). Pure Theory of Law. (2006). Fundamentals of Normative Legal Studies. Translation Raisul Muttaqien, Bandung: Nusa Media

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Intercultural Primary Education in the Second Half of the Decade

). Multicultural education as social activism. Journal of teacher education, 52(2), 94-106. The National Association for Multicultural Education. Retrieved from The Universal Declaration of Human Rights/United Nations. (1948). Retrieved form UNESCO Guidelines on Intercultural Education. (2010). Retrieved from What is intercultural education? Retrieved from http

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Inclusion, Diversity, Equality in Non-Formal Education through the Optic of Youth and Youth Workers

. Šuleková, M. (2016). Anthropological-axiological assumptions and ethical principles of optimal model of inclusion. In S. Bullock, M. Brestovanský, & P. Lenčo (Eds.). Inclusion, Diversity and Equality in Youth Work The Principles and Approaches . Cheltenham: University of Gloucestershire. United Nations. (1948). Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Retrieved from United Nations. (2006). Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Retrieved from https

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Norwegian policy on sami language learning and preservation

://­enous-peoples.html (accessed: November 22, 2018). United Nations/Human Rights/Office of the High Commissioner. (1965).International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. Retrieved from: (accessed: Novem­ber 22, 2018). Villadsen, L.S. (2014). More than a nice ritual: Official apologies as a rhetorical act in need of theoretical re-conceptualization. In: H. Van Belle, K. Rutten, P. Gillaerts, D. Van De Mieroop & B. Van Gorp, (Eds.), Let’s talk politics: new essays on

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