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Poland towards the German leadership in the European Union

:// Human Rights in Russia: Pussy Riot takes part in committee debate, DROI, Press release - External relations − 29-05-2013 -11:38, European Parliament/News, Human-Rights-in-Russia-Pussy-Riot-takes-part-in-committeedebate. J. Habermas, Pakt dla Europy czy przeciw Europie?, „Gazeta Wyborcza”, 9th-10th April 2011, p. 17 [Pact for Europe, or against Europe?]. K. Hołdak, Amerykański system obrony przeciwrakietowej i jego implikacje dla Polski, „Kwartalnik

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Belarus: Transformation from Authoritarianism towards Sultanism


The article consists of three parts. Firstly, the author considers the main concepts of the political regime in Belarus. Such an analysis includes the concepts of hybrid, authoritarian, and neo-patrimonial regimes. The second part deals with the reasons for Belarusian retreat from democratic standards, namely the Russian factor in Belarusian politics. President Vladimir Putin and Russian bureaucracy are afraid to lose Belarus in case Aliaksandr Lukashenka is removed from absolute power. The authoritarian regime in Russia has sponsored autocracies in the post-Soviet space, ensuring their dependence on Moscow. In the third part, the author analyses the transformation of the Belarusian regime, using the variables of the role of leadership, the state of pluralism, the role of ideology, the character of political mobilization, and the state of human rights. During a very short period of Lukashenka’s rule, we have witnessed a constant tightening of dictatorship rule, which has led the Belarusian regime to the point of a hybrid authoritarian-sultanistic regime (2006) and almost classical sultanism (2010). Such regimes as Belarusian can only be changed through the mobilization of public protest from below. Besides, the Belarusian semi-sultanism is not sustainable.

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Antidiplomacy in Russia’s policies regarding russian-speakers in the baltic states

. Oxford: Blackwell Publisher. Der Derian, J., 1992. Antidiplomacy: Spies, War, Terror. Oxford: Blackwell Publisher. Dolgov, K., 2012. Statement by Konstantin Dolgov, Russian Foreign Ministry’s Special Representative for Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law, at PACE International Conference “Human Rights and Foreign Policy” [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 12 December 2016]. Eesti

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Increasing Eupopulism as a megatrend in east central Europe: from facade democracies to velvet dictatorships

, Available at: <> [Accessed on 10 December 2016]. Mudde, C., 2002. In the Name of the Peasantry, the Proletariat, and the People: Populism in Eastern Europe. In: Y. Mény and Y. Surel, eds., 2002. Democracies and Populist Challenge. Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave, Ch. 12. Mudde, C., 2007. Populist Radical Parties in Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press. Muiznieks, N., 2014. Report by the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of

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A small state in the asymmetrical bilateral relations: Lithuania in Lithuanian-Russian relations since 2004

-138. Jakniūnaitė, D., Karabeshkin, L., and Vilpišauskas, R., 2015. Lithuania and Russia 1990-2012: From Mutual Support to Suspicion and Indifference. In: A. Zagorski, ed., Russia and East Central Europe after the Cold War. Prague: Human Rights Publishers, pp. 239-290. Jakniunaite, D., Vilpishauskas, R., 2012. Litovsko-ruskie otnoshenie 1991-2011 [Lithuanian-Russian Relations in 1991-2011]. Восточная Европа. Перспективы [Eastern Europe. Perspectives], 1-2, pp. 165-179. Janeliūnas, T., 2005. Gegužės 9-osios problema saugumizavimo teorijos ir

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