Just over twenty-three years ago, the right to strike or protest received an explicit constitutional entrenchment and thus, legal protection. This would progressively empower citizens, including students, to protest against any infringement or deprivation of their rights or entitlements, and poor service delivery by any stakeholder in the institutions of learning, the government or private sector even. Today, South Africa is inundated with multiplicity of nationwide protests, most of which have been accompanied by appalling levels of violence, anarchy and criminality. Unexpectedly, students have had their share in such protests, and it could be argued, they have been an inspiration to various communities. Hence, this article proffers a critical reflection of the conduct of students during protests at the institutions of higher learning. The article seeks to understand and or explain variables that motivate students to vandalise property or antagonise those that opt to be passive or non-participants of such protests. In comparison to variables identified concerning the 1976 student protests, which were ideologically well grounded, the article attempts to describe contemporary students’ thinking towards protests and why vandalism and anarchism have become, not only conventional, but so intensely socialised. The article adopts content analysis method, and employs crowd theory and collective behaviour approach as tools of analysis. It is asserted that lack of ideological strategy underpinning South Africa’s unending revolution, which is needed to inform students’ struggles, is responsible for pervasive tendencies of vandalism and destruction of property during student protests.
Rainer Schnell, Mark Trappmann and Tobias Gramlich
://www.record-linkage.de/-download=wp-grlc-2013-04.pdf Statistisches Bundesamt (ed.). (2011). Datenreport 2011. Berlin: Bundeszentrale fu¨ r politische Bildung.
Sudman, S. and Kalton, G. (1986). New Developments in the Sampling of Special Populations. Annual Review of Sociology, 12, 401-429.
Sulaiman-Hill, C.M. and Thompson, S.C. (2011). Sampling Challenges in a Study Examining Refugee Resettlement. BMC International Journal of Health and HumanRights, 11, 2-11. DOI: http://www.dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-698X-11-2
Trappmann, M., Gundert, S., Wenzig, C., and
This paper assesses the fundamental relation between the Islamic-political movements and establishment of the Islamic law (Shari’a). I argue against the critiques of western foreign policy and show that the Islamic State (Caliphate) is both a result of the historical process of the people of a region and the extreme interpretation of the text and Sunna which emphasizes on the traditional Sharia law and the concept of Jihad by fortifying political Islam qua militant Islam. I argue that the Islamic revival aims to a certain political order which threatens the world security and peace. Moreover, I argue that the structural violation of Human Rights is rooted in the traditional concept of Islamic law or Sharia, which obtains its immunity by an illegitimate power. This traditional Islamic law is the inalienable character of authoritarian/totalitarian regimes. This paper is based on the assumption that the extreme ideological/theoretical interpretation implies the empirical objectives of Militant Islamic community with or without any external influential elements. In this sense, we can address the question: how different interpretations and traditions in executing the Islamic Sharia give the social and political grounds a seed for the emergence of violence and terrorism. At the end, this paper ends with a propose which emphasizes on the role of international cooperation to find a resolution and also on the education as a long-term plan to defeat extremism and terrorism.
The concept of “nature and nurture” is used to distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on the formation of individual, mainly behavioral, traits. Different approaches that interpret nature and nurture as completely opposite or complementary aspects of human development have been discussed for decades. The paper addresses the most important points of nature vs nurture debate from the perspective of biological research, especially in the light of the recent findings in the field of epigenetics. The most important biological concepts, such as the trait, phenotype and genotype, as well as the evolution of other crucial notions are presented. Various attempts to find the main source of human variation are discussed - mainly the search for structural variants and the genome-wide association studies (GWAS). A new approach resulting from the discovery of “missing heritability”, as well as the current knowledge about the possible influence of epigenetic mechanisms on human traits are analyzed. Finally, the impact of epigenetic revolution on the society (public attitude, health policy, human rights etc.) is discussed.
Buchanan-Smith, M. & Cosgrave, J. (2013). Evaluation of Humanitarian Action: Pilot Guide. The Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action (ALNAP), London: Overseas Development Institute.
Burges, J.P. (2002). Ethics of Humanitarian Intervention: The Circle Closes. Security Dialogue, 33(3), 261-264.
Clark, D.A. (2005). Sen’s capability approach and the many spaces of human well-being. The Journal of Development Studies, 41(8), 1339-1368.
Darcy, J. (2004). HumanRights and Humanitarian
E. Navarro-Pardo, L. González-Pozo, P. Villacampa-Fernández and J.A. Conejero
the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of Valencia, since meets the fundamental principles established in the Declaration of Helsinki and the Council of Europe Convention on HumanRights, and the established requirements in Spanish legislation in the field of biomedical research, the protection of personal rights and bioethics are respected.
The flowchart of the design and procedure followed is displayed in Figure 1 . Potential participants were selected by the psychologist and the physician of the nursing home. The inclusion and exclusion criteria
., (2004), HumanRights in the Accession Process: Roma and Muslims in an Enlarging Europe, Minority Protection and the Enlarged European Union: The Way Forward, Local Government and Public Service Reform Initiative, Open Society Institute, pp. 37-59.
Institutul pentru Politici Publice, Bucuresti, (2015). Accesul Echitabil al Copiilor Romi la Serviciile de Sanatate , http://www.cjgiurgiu.ro/portal/giurgiu/cj/portal.nsf/0/F971A5F0A1D7B9EEC2257E610040F2D6/$FILE/IPP_Studiu_Accesul-la-servicii-de-sanatate_PEH-009.pdf , [Accessed 25.06.2016]
Kropp, M., (2012
Economics , 90 (6-7): 1133-1153.
Caselli, F., & Coleman., W. J. (2012). On the Theory of Ethnic Conflict : London School of Economics.
Chandra, K. (2004). Why Ethnic Parties Succeed . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
FIAN (2010). “ Land Grabbing in Kenya and Mozambique: A Report on Two Research Missions and a HumanRights Analysis of Land Grabbing ”. FIAN International Press, Heidelberg.
Ghai, Y., & Ghai, J. (2011). Kenya’s Constitution: An Instrument for Change. Katiba Institute, K-Rep Centre Nairobi, Kenya.
Magaga G. O., & Ogalo
’s Institute, University of Cape Town and Ilifa Labantwana.
Klare, K. (1998). Legal Culture and Transformative Constitutionalism. South African Journal on HumanRights . 14(1), 146-18.
Klotz, A. (1995). Norms reconstructing interests: global racial equality and U.S. sanctions against South Africa. International Organization, 49(3), 451-478.
Langa, P. (2006). Transformative Constitutionalism. Stellenbosch Law Review , 17(3), 351-360.
Lehohla, P. (2014). Poverty Trends in South Africa: An examination of absolute poverty between 2006 and 2011