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Determinants of gestational weight gain with special respect to maternal stature height and its consequences for newborn vital parameters

References Abeysena C, Jayawardana P. 2010. Maternal and social determinants of excessive weight gain during pregnancy: A cohort study. Int J Coll Res Internal Med & Public Health 2:348-59. Adegboye ARA, Rossner S, Neovius M, Lourenco PMC, Linne Y. 2010. Relationship between prenatal smoking cessation, gestational weight gain and maternal life style characteristics. Women Birth 23:29-35. Aliyu MH, Luke S, Wilson RE, Saidu R, Alio AP, Salihu HM, Belogolovkin V. 2010.Obesity in older mothers, gestational

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The impact of maternal age on foetal growth patterns and newborn size

Abstract

The association patterns between maternal age and foetal growth parameters as well as newborn size were analysed using a dataset of 4737 singleton term births taking place at the Viennese Danube hospital. Foetal growth patterns were reconstructed by the results of three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32th/33thweek of gestation. In detail, crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length were determined. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were measured immediately after birth. Young teenage mothers (≤15 years), older adolescent mothers (16-19 years), mothers of optimal age range (20-35 years) and mothers of advanced age (>35 years) differed significantly in body height, pre-pregnancy weight status and gestational weight gain. Surprisingly, the foetuses of young adolescent mothers were the largest ones during first trimester. During the second and third trimester however, the foetuses of mothers of optimal age range (20-35 years) and mothers older than 35 years showed larger biometric dimensions than adolescent mothers. According to multiple regression analyses, maternal age was significantly related to Foetal head size (ß =-0.04; 95% CI = -0,08 - 0.01; p=0.034) and abdominal dimensions (ß= 0.03; 95% CI = 0.01-0.05; p=0,011) during the second trimester and to birthweight (ß= -0.03; 95% CI= -4.40 - 0.04; p=0.050). The associations however, are quite weak and the statistical significance is maybe due to the large sample size. At the time of birth, offspring of mothers of optimal age range (20 to 35 years) is significantly larger than that of adolescent mothers and mothers of advanced age. Mothers of advanced age showed the significantly highest (p=<0.0001) prevalence (5.6%) of SGA newborns (<2500g). The small size of newborn among young adolescent mothers may be due to a competition over nutrients between the still growing mothers and the foetuses during the third trimester, while placental ageing may be responsible for smaller size of offspring among mothers of advanced age.

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Prevalence of obesity, central obesity, and associated socio-demographic variables in Syrian women using different anthropometric indicators

factors associated with obesity among women in Saudi Arabia. In: AO Musaiger, ed. Obesity in the Arab World. Bahrain: Arab Center for nutrition. Musaiger AO. 2011. Overweight and obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean region: prevalence and possible causes. J Obes. Article ID 407237. doi: 10.1155/2011/407237. Oson CM, Strawderman MS, Hinton PS, Pearson TA. 2003. Gestational weight gain and postpartum behaviors associated with weight change from early pregnancy to 1 y postpartum. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27

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Bone Mineral Density in Children From Anthropological and Clinical Sciences: A Review

computed x-ray densitometry. J Pediatr Gastr Nutr 23(2):130-134. Hartikainen H, Maleta K, Kulmala T, Ashorn P. 2005. Seasonality of gestational weight gain and foetal growth in rural Malawi. East Afr Med J 82(6):294-99. Heaney RP, Abrams S, Dawson-Hughes B, Looker A, Marcus R, Matkovic V et al. 2000. Peak bone mass. Osteoporos Int 11(12):985-1009. Holger W, Blimkie CJR, Cowell Ct, Kemp AF, Briody J, Wiebe P et al. 2003. A comparison of bone geometry and cortical density at the mid-femur between prepuberty and young adulthood using magnetic resonance imaging. Bone

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