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Body height and age at menarche of girls from eastern Poland in the period of political transformation

Abstract

Biological state of a group of people or particular individuals in various phases of ontogenesis should be treated as a positive health measure. The aim of the study was to assess the directions of changes in body height and age at menarche of girls from eastern Poland in the years 1986-2016. The data regarding 30784 students aged 10-16 living in towns and villages of the eastern parts of such regions as Podkarpackie, Lubelskie, Podlaskie, Warminsko-mazurskie and, to a slight extent, Mazowieckie were used in the study. Body height was measured and information concerning the place of living and age at menarche (yes-no) was gathered during interviews. Acceleration of body height and age at menarche was observed in girls from the east of Poland in the period of political transformation and after European Union (EU) accession, while the level of secular trends was connected with the pace of changes in the environment. Biological effects of the EU preservation of Polish agriculture and particular care of the eastern provinces of Poland reduced developmental differences between these provinces and other regions of Poland. Moreover, in the analysed period of three decades (1986-2016), the disappearance of differences in body height and age at menarche between the inhabitants of rural and urban areas was noted, which indicates larger positive socio-economic changes in the countryside. In turn, greater body height was noted in non-menstruating girls compared to their menstruating counterparts. However, in subsequent observations, smaller differences between these groups were observed.

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Body mass index, general fatness, lipid profile and bone mineral density in young women and men

Osteoporosis Fundation Reports. 2008. Osteoporosis in the European Union in: Ten years of progress and ongoing challenges. Available at: www. iofbonehealth.org. Jeong IK, Cho SW, Kim SW. 2010. Lipid Profiles and Bone Mineral Density in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women in Korea. Calcif Tissue Int 87:507-12. Lee AMC, Sawyer RK, Moore AJ, Morris HA. 2014. O’Loughlin P.D., Anderson P.H.: Adequate dietary vitamin D and calcium are both required to reduce bone turnover and increased bone mineral volume. J Steroid Biochem Molecular Biol 144

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Practical Problems of Legal Regulation of Customs Duties Developing an International Trade Between the Republic of Lithuania And East Asian Countries

Kluwer Law & Business. The European Union-South Korea Free Trade Agreement 2011. OJ L 127. The Directorate General for Trade of the European Commission, 2015. Countries and regions. Available at: <http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/countries-and-regions/> [Accessed 10 September 2015]. Thuronyi, V., 2003. Comparative Tax Law. The Hague: Kluwer Law International. Weerth, C., 2008. HS 2007: Notes of the Tariff Nomenclature and the Additional Notes of the EC. World Customs Journal, 2(1), pp.111-116. Woolcook, S

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In the Wake of TICAD V: Japan-Africa Relations Today

/asia/japan-and-united-states-reaffrm-their-close-ties.html?pagewanted=all&_ r=0 [Accessed 20 June 2013]. Conze, A. 2013. Watch Out for the Lions Club. An Unexpected Triumph in Africa. Harvard International Review . 34(4), pp.17-21. Cornelissen, S., 2012. Selling Africa: Japan's G8 Politics and Its Africa Diplomacy. Global Governance . 18(4), pp.461-470. Dobson, H. 2012. Japan's response to the changing global order: the case of a ‘Gaggle of Gs’. International Relations of the Asia-Pacifc . 12(2), pp.229-257. Grevi, G. 2009. The interpolar world: a new scenario. European Union Institute for Security Studies. Occasional Papers

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On the Road!? Developing Economy and Nonprofit Organizations in Taiwan

Kínai Köztársaság (Tajvan) és az Európai Unió kapcsolatai az ezredfordulón. (The relations of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and the European Union at the millenium.) Magyar Tudomány Napja - Budapesti Gazdasági Főiskola, pp. 71-79. Mészáros, K., 2007. Taiwan és a szárazföldi Kína gazdasági és politikai kapcsolatai a Sing-kortól napjainkig. (The economic and political relations between Taiwan and continental China from the Sing era until our days.) (OTKA T 043152). Available at: < http://real.mtak.hu/949/1/43152_ZJ1.pdf > [Accessed 14 December 2014

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