Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Barbara Woźniak, Katarzyna Sielska and Andrzej Posyniak
fattening purposes in livestock has been banned in the EuropeanUnion (EU) since 1988, according to Council Directives 96/22/EC and 2003/74/EC ( 7 , 8 ). The steroid esters that belong to the A3 group of banned substances should not be present in biological matrices of animal origin, just as other unauthorised substances having anabolic effect included in Annex 1 of Council Directive 96/23/EC. In line with the recommendations of the designated EuropeanUnion Reference Laboratories (EURLs) which oversee and are responsible for the testing of prohibited substances in the
Justyna Baraniak, Radosław Kujawski and Marcin Ożarowski
1. Directive 2009/39/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 on foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses. Official Journal of the EuropeanUnion. L 124/21-29.
2. Regulation (EU) No 609/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 June 2013 on food intended for infants and young children, food for special medical purposes, and total diet replacement for weight control and repealing Council Directive 92/52/EEC, Commission Directives 96/8/EC, 1999/21/EC, 2006/125/EC and 2006/141/EC, Directive 2009
Natalia Mazur-Panasiuk, Jacek Żmudzki and Grzegorz Woźniakowski
proved that ASFV can be easily transmitted, either by direct contact or indirectly, .via swill feed or contaminated fomites like clothes, footwear, equipment, food waste, bedding, etc. The most spectacular example of the disease spreading through fomites is its current epidemics in Europe, where it was introduced by ships containing ASFV-contaminated kitchen wastes used to feed pigs near Poti docks. Subsequently, the disease spread quickly to the neighbouring Caucasian region, then to Eastern Europe, and finally reached EuropeanUnion countries in 2014 ( 4
, highly similar strains were also found in several European countries ( 19 , 36 ). PED is not a notifiable disease in the EuropeanUnion and is not on the list of diseases reported to the World Animal Health Organization (OIE), therefore the status of this disease is not fully recognised. In the last 10 years, only a few countries have reported clinical cases of PED and/or seropositive animals ( 4 ).
Coronaviruses belong to the Coronavirinae subfamily. Currently, this subfamily is classified into the four genera Alphacoronavirus
( 6 )
( 68 )
Commission Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 establishes detailed regulations for hygiene in foodstuffs in the EuropeanUnion. Section VIII, chapter V indicates that fishery products derived from poisonous fish of the Tetraodontidae , Molidae , Diodontidae , and Canthigasteridae families are banned from the market ( 7 ). In Japan, a regulatory limit of 2 mg equivalent of TTX/kg was laid down for tetrodotoxin, while in Europe appropriate criteria have not been determined ( 4 , 19
/141/EC, Directive 2009/39/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulations (EC) No. 41/2009 and (EC) No. 953/2009. Official Journal of the EuropeanUnion. L 181/35-56.
3. Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/128 of 25 September 2015 supplementing Regulation (EU) No. 609/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the specific compositional and information requirements for food for special medical purposes.
4. EFSA. Scientific and technical guidance on foods for special medical purposes in the context of
Listeriosis is one of the most dangerous foodborne zoonoses with a high mortality rate reaching 20%–30% ( 32 , 33 , 39 ). Although it is a relatively rare illness, with the notification rate of 0.46 cases per 100,000 persons in 2015 in the EuropeanUnion (EU), most of the infections required hospitalisation (97.4%) ( 9 ). At the same year 2,206 confirmed human listeriosis cases and 270 deaths were noted. In Poland in 2015, 70 people suffered from Listeria monocytogenes infection, with the notification rate of 0.18 ( 9 ). A significant
H. Stoyanova, E. Carretón and J. A. Montoya-Alonso
. Parasitol. Res ., 117(3): 933 – 936. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-018-5774-1 10.1007/s00436-018-5774-1
Cabrera E.D. Carretón E. Morchón R. Falcón-Cordón Y. Falcón-Cordón S. Simón F. Montoya-Alonso J.A. 2018 The Canary Islands as a model of risk of pulmonary dirofilariasis in a hyperendemic area Parasitol. Res 117 3 933 936 10.1007/s00436-018-5774-1
Eurostat, The Statistical Office Of The EuropeanUnion (2018a): Population on 1 January by age groups and sex - functional urban areas. Unit E4: Regional statistics and geographical
Electra Papadopoulou, Konstantinos Vaitsas, Ioannis Fallas, Giorgos Tsipas, Konstantinos Chrissafis, Dimitrios Bikiaris, Constantina Kottaridi and Konstantinos E. Vorgias
) The UN responded to these challenges by launching the 17 Millennium Goals or Global Goals for Sustainable Development (GGSD) in a global summit that took place in 2015 ( 3 ). The EuropeanUnion with the 5 th Research and Innovation Framework Programme (1998 – 2002) and the parallel development of a Strategy on Biotechnology, provided a solid foundation for the development of the so-called Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) ( 4 ). A few years earlier, prior to the launch of the 7 th Framework Programme (2007–2013) the KBBE concept emerged. The accumulated
Munis Dundar, Satya Prakash, Ratnesh Lal and Donald K. Martin
The first FDA’s Orphan Drug Act was offered by US in 1983. After the US, in 2000 Singapore, Japan, Australia became the other countries. Also, EuropeanUnion was presented their own shape of orphan medicine. Comparative studies provided very positive effect on market. Before the act only about 10 orphan-like product was known but now the number excess of 230. Similarly, this number in Japan reach to 175. But before this number was only 42. Biotechnology is introducing an ever-increasing role in drug discovery. Because it prefers new approaches for the development of