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Katarzyna Januszewicz, Marek Klein and Ewa Klugmann-Radziemska
Gaseous Products from Scrap Tires Pyrolisis
In European Union 75% of used tires should be recycled. The most common method of used tires disposal, is burning in cement kilns, which does not solve the problem. Pyrolysis process can be an alternative way of utilization of tires. The aim of the researches was to check the influence of pyrolysis products (gas and oil fractions) on environment. Samples from pyrolysis process, like light oil fractions or pyrolysis gases were analyzed using gas chromatography. The pyrolysis installation should be hermetical, because of the PAHs which were detected in a light fraction of oil. In exhaust gases BTEX and PAHs were not detected.
This is the second paper of a two part review. In its first part mathematical models for atmospheric dispersion of heavy gases are classified and the distinguished groups of models are characterised. In this part procedures for the model quality evaluation are described and the main results of model evaluation exercises and databases with experimental data related to the subject are summarised. The quality of a model is clearly of great importance since the decisions concerning the safety of people, environment are based on model calculations. Attention is focused on activities carried out in the European Union countries and in the USA. These include the work of the groups of researchers called MEG, HGDEG, projects known under the names REDIPHEM, SMEDIS, DATABASE and the model evaluation exercise carried out by the Sigma Research Corporation.
In last years all countries of the European Union experience decrease of water consumption. What is worse, in most cases large European water treatment plants (WTP) have been design and built decades ago, when water consumption was much higher than nowadays. It is a challenging task to adjust WTP’s capacity to the current water demand as it is associated with costs and safety issues. Minding that fact, authors decided to propose an new authorial methodology of combined reliability-cost efficiency assessment for water supply system with exceeded redundant capacity, based on new index - unit indicator of reliability-cost efficiency. It included both reliability and costs aspects. It was decided to present the new method on example of the pumping subsystems working for WTP in Poland. The research was based on Activity-Based Life Cycle Costs (AB-LCC) methodology together with two-parametric reliability evaluation. Using real operational and financial data an application of proposed authorial reliability-cost indicator was presented. The reliability-cost efficiency assessment allowed to present how operation of each pumping subsystem influenced global operational costs of WTP. This information is essential for decision-making process for rational management of technical facilities.
Grzegorz Wielgosiński, Dorota Wasiak and Alicja Zawadzka
Thermal treatment of waste is one of the ways of their processing. It is commonly used in most developed countries of the European Union. Major by-products of the combustion processes are slag and bottom ash. In the majority of EU countries bottom ash and slag are used as a priming for road construction. In Poland slag and bottom ash from incineration process are stabilized with the addition of cement and some polymers and are landfilled as wastes. In accordance to Polish law, depending on the leaching of heavy metals from fly ash and slag after thermal treatment of waste can be regarded as both hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. At present work sequential extraction methods described in the literature: Tessier’s method, van Herck’s method and BCR method were compared experimentally with the results of using Swiss standard TVA.SA.1991 and European standard EN 12457 and total concentration of metals in sample analyzed after complete digestion of sample. The study sample was bottom ash from the medical waste incineration plant.
Tadeusz Rodziewicz, Janusz Teneta, Aleksander Zaremba and Maria Wacławek
The article presents an analysis of the resources and the structure of the solar energy in the area of Southern Poland on the basis of complete meteorological data from the AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow in 2009. An analysis attempt of its use for photovoltaic conversion using different modules with different spectral characteristics of absorbers was made. These latest methods for characterizing the structure of solar energy resources such as: distributions throughout the year: sky clearness or cloudiness indexes, the average values of photon energy (APE) and the contents of the useful fraction (UF) of the solar spectrum, are not yet widely known and used as in Poland and in other EU countries, despite the fact that most accurately determine the spectral matching factor for the chosen photovoltaic module. Due to the need for a very expensive measuring equipment, are used only by a few laboratories in the European Union, such as CREST (Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology) in the UK. The article presents - developed and used in the Opole University - a new low-cost method for determining of the spectrum with the use of above-mentioned indexes, including APE and UF, without buying an expensive spectroradiometer, which gives comparable results.
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 Kryza M, Mill W, Dore AJ, Werner M, Blas M. Calculation of sulphur and nitrogen deposition with the frame model and assessment of the exceedance of critical loads in Poland. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2013;20(2):279-290. DOI: 10
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