The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.
Mieczysław Adamowicz and Magdalena Zwolińska-Ligaj
Rady na rzecz Rozwoju Obszarów Wiejskich (EFRROW) i uchylenie Rozporządzenia Rady (UE) Nr 1698/2005 Dziennik Urzędowy Unii Europejskiej z 20.12.2013.
24. Rozporządzenie Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady UE Nr 1303/2013 z dnia 17 grudnia 2013 r. w sprawie ustanawiając wspolne przepisy dotyczące funduszy europejskich- uchylając rozporządzenie 1083/2006, Dziennik Urzędowy Unii Europejskiej z 20.12.2013.
25. Rural Development in the EuropeanUnion-Statistical and Economic infromation, Raport 2006-2013.
26. Russel, P. (2012). Ewolucja wieloletnich ram
Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the research was to determine the diversity of social development of all communes in the Podkarpackie province in two research periods of 2003 and 2013.
Materials and methods: All functions such as LHDI were tested. The variant was used to group communes in the variant, comparing the Hellwig’s Taxonomic Development Meter based on the results analysis. Selection of own diagnostics was done in a natural way using TMR measures.
Results: There is a positive decline in the number of communes in the lowest class by two units. At the same time, the number of four of two socially most developed groups decreased, and the number of communes with an average development level for growth. Communes that have maintained the position of socially the strongest in the region for years are: Krosno and Boguchwała. The largest increase over the analyzed years was recorded in Rzeszów, Trzebownisko, Przemyśl and Ostrów communes.
Conclusions: The indicator analysis shows that the province is developing. This development is very diverse in a particular society in the Podkarpacie region, central and north-west.
Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this study is transfer prices and their use for optimization of financial burdens of international companies (capital groups). The purpose of this study was to present transfer pricing issues in the light of applicable law and using them for tax purposes.
Materials and methods: The study uses literature and data from the World Bank and Google. Methods of descriptive and tabular analysis and inference were used.
Results: Google makes 91% of its revenues outside the US.
Conclusions: Transfer pricing is a tool for optimizing tax burden of international companies that bring them benefits in the form of the so-called “globalization annuity”, which makes them economically stronger and more technologically competitive. Polish tax law on transfer pricing has been tightened since 2001; transfer pricing issues are also regulated by the European Union and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
Subject and purpose of work: The subject of analysis and evaluation are foreign direct investments (FDI) in Poland with particular emphasis on the Lublin Voivodship as a peripheral region. The aim of the paper is to present the investment attractiveness of the voivodship, the state of investment and ways to enhance the investment attractiveness of the region.
Materials and methods: This paper is based on statistical data from the Central Statistical Office (GUS), the National Bank of Poland (NBP) and other institutions, as well as published literature of this topic.
Results: This paper presents theoretical foundations of foreign investments, characteristics of the inflow of foreign direct investments to Poland in the years 2000-2017, their origin and directions of their use and distribution in the country. FDI is presented in detail in Lublin Voivodship, which is considered to be a peripheral region of Poland and the European Union.
Conclusions: FDI inflow to Poland was uneven in time, and investments were concentrated in the Masovian Voivodship and a few other voivodships of Western and Central Poland. Lublin Voivodship, despite activities increasing its investment attractiveness, still has unused opportunities for application of foreign investments.
1. Annoni, P., Dijkstra, L. (2013). EU Regional Competitiveness Index, European Commission Joint Research Centre; https://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/studies/pdf/6th_report/rci_2013_report_final.pdf .
2. Bosiacki, S., Panasiuk, A. (2017). Planowanie rozwoju turystyki – regulacja czy deregulacja? Studia Oeconomica Posnaniensia , 5 (4), 7-28. https://doi.org/10.18559/SOEP.2017.4.1
3. Consolidated version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EuropeanUnion ; http
Summary Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of the study is to analyse the structure and the relation of the Polish-Belarusian cross-border cooperation network, to identify the key nodes in the network, to analyse the dynamics of connections between the actors, and to identify the most important changes in the structure of the network. Materials and methods: The article quotes the results of analyses of cross-border projects from 2004- 2017. The analysis includes projects completed, applicants, and partners of projects. The network analysis was carried out using Ucinet and NetDraw software. Results: The structure of the Polish-Belarusian cooperation is dominated by several large nodes, on the other hand there are many micronetworks - of three or four nodes, which are connected with each other. Conclusions: The Polish-Belarusian cooperation is of great importance for the international relations of the Polish state. Projects carried out by entities located at the border strengthen the cooperation, bringing a number of measurable benefits (hard and soft), depending on nature of the projects, as well as frequency and scale of the undertaken activities.