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, rejecting universalistic utopias and turning to their own historical “roots”. Economic globalism and political integration are confronted by cultural separatism, which becomes critical when we come to specific issues swamping Western Europe. One of the issues is the growing presence of Muslims in the European Union (EU). The Summer School on Nationalism, Religion, and Violence in Europe (conducted in Prague between June 18 and 29, 2018) illustrated some concerns about the situation through different presentations and remarkable questions that the participants directed to

; Stulík 2016 ); and the level of individuals (e.g., Hawkins 2009 ). In all these forms of populism, a concept that is markedly dealt with is that of the endangerment of “pure people” by variously defined enemies, who can be corrupt elites ( Wolkenstein 2016 ), the European Union, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), or immigrants (cf. Antal 2017 ). In this text, we focus on the ways in which Czech President Miloš Zeman uses the term security (and other related terms; see following sections), which leads to the creation of a populist framing of the issue of Islam and

: Harvard University Press. Dworkin Ronald 1986 Law’s Empire Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press Ferrara, Alessandro. 2013. The Democratic Horizon: Hyperpluralism and the Renewal of Political Liberalism . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Ferrara Alessandro 2013 The Democratic Horizon: Hyperpluralism and the Renewal of Political Liberalism Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press Habermas, Jürgen, 2012. The Crisis of the European Union: A Response . trans. Ciaran Cronin. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. Habermas Jürgen, 2012 The Crisis of the European Union: A

ban. The scatterplot reveals eye-catching evidence for the phenomenon of ‘ Islamophobia without Muslims ’. At this point, it is important to acknowledge that the ESS (2014) has not been carried out in all member states of the European Union. Furthermore, it does not allow representative statements about Eastern Europe as the respective round of the ESS (2014) only contains six Eastern European societies. Figure 1 The effect of the factual presence of Muslim minorities in European societies on the average support for a Muslim ban Source: European Social Survey 2014

claims that “for a long time, migration has not been one of the topics that would lead to intense any debate in Slovakia, unlike some other countries of the European Union. This fact is certainly related to the incomparably lower number of migrants and migrant backgrounds” ( Androvičová 2015 , 319). The situation changed in 2015 with a huge number of migrants coming to the EU from the MENA region. Middle East and North Africa region. Migration has become an important topic in political discourse since the second half of 2015 despite the fact that according to the

Pravda (center-left oriented). As already mentioned, 420 messages were analyzed. Migration Discourse in the Slovak Republic The migration crisis that hit Europe at the beginning of the year 2015 significantly influenced not only the inner view on the functionality and efficiency of the European Union, but it also changed the mood and the position of European societies in the national states, including the view on the overall concept of solidarity and cohesion of European nations. It influenced the political elites operating not only at the national level but also at

New Zealand is the institution of dual citizenship, which should be seen, however, as an initiative instrument for today’s ongoing transregionalism. As for conclusion, it is necessary to underline that this kind of transregionalism, understood as developed intraregional community building, built also on dual citizenship, shows rather different features and characteristics than that of the European Union, however also recognizing and applying dual citizenship based on ideas of commonly shared European identity. The main discrepancy lines could be seen in the fact

characteristic of the current Russian online discourse in relation to the Czech Republic and, in part, to other Central European countries and Slavic nations and the whole of the European Union; 4) map the most frequently used ways of reasoning and linguistic means that are commonly used in the Russian comments to Czech texts and that serve to paint a negative image of Czechs and the Czech Republic for the Russian public. The study is based on language data acquired by analyzing readers’ comments left on a total of 45 Russian translations of Czech journalistic writings

exiled by communism to the United States, the KDNP launched a fundraising drive for a Reagan statue in Budapest, “which will be for us a guide post about the values derived from universal human rights and liberty, the values of our Christian Democratic politicians, and since the unveiling of the statue will take place on the last day of the Hungarian presidency of the European Union, it will give European cooperation an Atlantic dimension as well” (U.S. Embassy Budapest videos July 1, 2011). The tearing down of walls was a theme that several Hungarian politicians

,000 languages. Because the above-mentioned national language problems exceed the borders of Moldova, we cannot accept this problem as an internal matter for Chişinău. The European Union is supposed to participate in the solving of problems, as a partner financing many important projects in the country, in Romania as well as in other states whose situation is similar to that of Moldova. In 2013, as already mentioned, the Moldovan Constitutional Court solved the constitutional dichotomy in favor of Romanian. The national linguistic situation has gradually been improving, with