the EU’s Pragmatic Engagement with Belarus in the Eastern Partnership Policy. The EuropeanUnion and Its Neighbours: Values versus Security in European Foreign Policy, 173-194.
Carrrère d’Encausse, Hélène, (1992), Victorieuse Russie, Fayard.
Conte, A. (1992). L'épopée coloniale de la France, Plon.
Debaere, P. (2015). The EuropeanUnion and the Gx System. In EU Coordination in International Institutions: Policy and Process in Gx Forums (pp. 10-19). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Demchenko, O., & Golosov, G. V
European Commission. (2010). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: A Digital Agenda for Europe, available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52010DC0245R(01)&from=EN, accessed on: 20 February 2018.
European Commission. (2013). Cybersecurity Strategy of the EuropeanUnion: An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace, available at: https
Virginia Navajas Romero, Juan Antonio Jimber del Río and José Carlos Casas-Rosal
supervisors. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(3), 490-515.
Dubin, R. (1956). Industrial workers' worlds: A study of the “central life interests” of industrial workers. Social problems, 3(3), 131-142.
Eurofound (2012). Third European Quality of Life Survey - Quality of life in Europe: Impacts of the crisis. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the EuropeanUnion.
Eurofound (2015). Sixth European working conditions survey. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
Having previously remained impartial on the Gibraltar question between Spain and Britain since both were member states, the European Union suddenly changed its position after the Brexit referendum in favor of the Spanish government at the expense of breaching international law. In doing so, the European Union, for the first time, created a foreign policy on the long-standing Gibraltar question. This article explores the reasons behind the creation of this foreign policy in support of Spain. The European Union feared that the idea of Euroscepticism may escalate among remaining member states after the Brexit referendum because of wide-spread claims that it would dissolve in the near future, fuelled by farright political parties. The European Union therefore created a foreign policy regarding Gibraltar in Spain’s favor in order to promote a “sense of community” for thwarting a further rise in Euroscepticism. While making its analysis, the article applies the assumption of social constructivism that ideas shape interests, which then determine the foreign policy choices of actors.
Dejan Ravšelj, Polonca Kovač and Aleksander Aristovnik
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are very important for the European economy. However, SMEs often encounter various barriers, whereby tax-related barriers are perceived as the most burdensome that affects their business operations and entrepreneurial activity in general. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it attempts to identify SMEs perception on current state and measures to be carried out in order to reduce respective red tape. Second, it tries to establish the relationship between burdens imposed by tax policy and entrepreneurial activity. Using hierarchical cluster analysis and descriptive statistics two different datasets are analyzed for the European Union (EU) and Slovenia separately. The results provide evidence that tax burden is less influential than tax administrative burden among EU countries by considering their impact on new business density and total early-stage entrepreneurial activity. Additionally, the results for Slovenia reveal that the need for a stable tax system, with IT and procedurally related measures are highlighted.
1. Balendr, A. (2018). Information and communication technologies in foreign languages training of the border guards in the EuropeanUnion Countries. Information Technologies and Learning Tools, 67 (5), 56-71.
2. Bidiuk, N., Ikonnikova, M., & Komochkova, O. (2018). Overview of professional education of linguistics students at universities of Great Britain. Advanced Education, 9, 5-10.
3. Bloshchynskyi, I. (2017). Enhancement of cadets’ practical training at the National Academy of the State Border
Hauptzollamt Frankfurt am Main, 2015 EU:C:2015:783.
Case C-442/08 Commission v Germany, 2010 E.C.R. I-0000.
Case C-472/12 Panasonic Italia SpA, Panasonic Marketing Europe GmbH, Scerni Logistics Srl v Agenzia delle Dogane di Milano, 2014 EU:C:2014:2082.
Case C-97/95 Pascoal & Filhos Ld. v Fazenda Pública, 1997 E.C.R. I-04209.
Case T-412/13 Chin Haur Indonesia, PT v Council of the EuropeanUnion, 2015 EU:T:2015:163.
Commission Regulation No. 1101948/200914 on the tariff and statistical nomenclature
Studying the experience of foreign language teachers’ professional training in developed foreign countries opens up new opportunities for improving the system of pedagogical education in conditions of its adaptation to the requirements of the European educational space. Of a significant scientific interest are the progressive achievements of countries that demonstrate a high level of foreign language teachers’ professional training in accordance with international standards; have rich historical traditions of education that contributes to their leading role in science and education at the regional and global levels; have gained considerable experience in the field of foreign language teachers’ professional training in the new socio-cultural conditions. It is emphasized that the language policy of the European Union demonstrates the crucial importance of language learning in the integration processes. It is also underlined that in modern international documents on the modernization of the foreign language teachers’ professional training it is stated that modern educational transformations should facilitate the implementation of a European dimension in the foreign languages teachers’ training. The establishment of new values related to the search for a multicultural, multi-ethnic and multi-linguistic Europe depends to a great extent on the ability of the teacher to develop a European consciousness and an individual sense of moral responsibility in a pluralistic society. The paper presents the results of collective scientific research, in particular, the peculiarities of the foreign language teachers’ professional training in Poland are presented and the recommendations on the creative use of constructive ideas of the progressive experience in the process of updating the system of pedagogical education are outlined.
The article deals with the trends in developing professional pedagogical competency of lecturers in the scientific and educational space of the leading EU countries. Specific attention is paid to the analysis of the approaches to determining core competencies required for professional growth, as well as components and criteria for developing professional pedagogical competency in the education systems of the UK, Germany, France, Austria, the Netherlands, Dennmark, Finland. It is highlighted that despite the availability of relevant documents in an integrated Europe, which contain the conceptual framework for acquiring core (basic) competencies, the terms and their criteria differ in each country. It is indicated that in the European Union there is no single approach to understanding the essence, ways and methods for shaping and developing professional pedagogical competency. It is specified that professional pedagogical competency occupies the most important place among the main competencies of lecturers since it is directly related to the performance of professioal duties. It is clarified that when defining the essence of professional pedagogical competency the EU experts pay considerable attention to such qualities of lecturers as the ability to independently solve complex tasks, acquire new knowledge and skills, have a positive view of one’s own personality, fruitfully communicate with students and colleagues. It is concluded that the current research made it possible to prove a clear orientation of these countries’ state policy towards developing the potential of lecturers, the availability of legal foundations required to ensure support and integrity of lecturers’ professional development, a high level of organization and methodical support of the programmes for lecturers’ professional development, which are characterized by clear goals and expected outcomes.
(2), 95–113. https://doi.org/10.2307/2112677
European Commission. (2011). Progress Towards the Common European Objectives in Education and Training. Indicators and Benchmarks 2010/2011 . Strasbourg: European Commission. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/education/lifelong-learning-policy/indicators10_en.htm
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice/Cedefop. (2014). Tackling Early Leaving from Education and Training in Europe: Strategies, Policies and Measures . Luxembourg: Publications Office of the EuropeanUnion.
Eurostat. (2017, September 1). Early