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Gas Combustion Efficiency Enhancement: Application Study of Intense Elestrostatic Field

Abstract

A number of international, European Union and Latvian legislative acts have been developed, which regulate the efficiency of gas combustion plants and greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. These legislative acts require the development of new scientifically efficient methods for gas optimal combustion with a minor impact on the environment. In order to achieve such a goal, different methods can be used, but the most efficient is an intensive electrostatic field application to control combustion and harmful emission formation in premixed flames. In the framework of the current study, the authors developed a hybrid burner, which allowed generating an intensive electrostatic field with intensity of more than 1000 kV/m. The study also investigated the impact of such a field on the formation of harmful emissions, including CO2 and flue gas temperature. The empirical results showed that an intensive DC electrostatic field generated inside of the burner had an impact on the flame shape, CO2, NOx emissions and flue gas temperature. In its turn, by applying an intensive pulsating electrostatic field (multivariable experiment) it was possible to achieve the reduction in NOx, CO emissions with a simultaneous increase in flue gas temperature, which was related to combustion process efficiency enhancement.

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Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Due to Improvement of Biodegradable Waste Management System

protection activities and its economic assessment for the next European Union Funds financial programming period 2014 - 2020,) Riga: Oral presentation. Geo Consultants, SIA 11. Arina, D., Bendere, R., & Teibe, I. (2012). Pre-treatment Processes of Waste Reducing the Disposed Amount of Organic Waste and Greenhouse Gas Emission. Congress proceedings (p. 517 pdf). Florence: The ISWA World Solid Waste Congress 2012. 12. Kalnacs, J., Arina, D. and Murashov, V. (2013), “Content and Properties of Mechanically Sorted Municipal Wastes and Their

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Challenges and Barriers by Transition Towards 4th Generation District Heating System: A Strategy to Establish a Pricing Mechanism

. Official Journal of the European Union, L 211/55 , 55–93. 9. European Comission (2016). An EU Strategy on Heating and Cooling. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, COM(2016), 51 Final , 1–13. 10. Eurostat (2018). Energy balance sheets. 2016 data. Eurostat , 1–116. 11. Rehman, H., Hirvonen, J., & Sirén, K. (2018). Performance comparison between optimized design of a centralized and semi-decentralized community size solar district heating

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Biofuels in transport sector of Latvia: experience, current status and barriers

Abstract

During the last 10 years biofuel production and utilization in the European Union have become more extensive owing to support provided by the relevant EU Directives. Achievement of the main targets defined by Directives was not simple, being confronted with various barriers. Latvia is one of the EU member-countries that have set an ambitious goal as to the production of biofuel and its use in transport. The authors summarize the major achievements of the country in this area and analyze the main barriers to implementation of biofuels in the transport sector, providing an outlook on the current status of the bioenergy and the transport situation in Latvia.

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Investigation of daily covering material for biocells

Abstract

Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds.

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Physical And Technical Energy Problems. Factors of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction in the Road Transport of Latvia / Siltumnīcefekta Gāzu Emisiju Samazināšanas Faktori Autotransportā Latvijā

References 1. European Union climate and energy package. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/climat/climate_action.htm 2. Ceļu satiksmes drošības direkcija. www.csdd.lv 3. COPERT. www.emisia.com/copert/ 4. Noteikumi par benzīna un dīzeļdegvielas atbilstības novērtēšanu. Ministru kabineta noteikumi Nr.332, Rīgā 2000.gada 26.septembrī. http://www.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=11217 5. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2009, Jun 19, 2009 http

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A Methodology for the Estimation of the Wind Generator Economic Efficiency

. Zaleskis, G., Steiks, I., Pumpurs, A., & Krievs, O. (2015). DC-AC converter for load supply in autonomous wind-hydrogen power system. In 56th International Scientific Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering of Riga Technical University (RTUCON), 14 October 2015 (pp. 169–173). Riga: RTU Press. 5. Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources. (2009). Official Journal of the European Union, L140/16. 6. Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on

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Natural Radioactivity in Clay and Building Materials Used in Latvia

). Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM. Luxembourg: EC. 5. Latvian Cabinet of Ministers. (2002). Regulation of Protection against Ionising Radiation. Regulations No.149, adopted 09.04.2002. Riga. 6. Nuccetelli, C., Risica, S., D’Alessandro, M., Trevisi, R. (2012). Natural radioactivity in building materials in the European Union: Robustness of the activity concentration index I and comparison with a room model. Journal of Radiological Protection 32, 349-358. 7. Trevisi, R., Risica, S., D’Alessandro, M., Paradiso, D., Nuccetelli

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The Development and Design of Engineering Economic Indicator System for Nanotechnology Industry Product Manufacturing: A Case Study of Latvia / Inženierekonomisko Rādītāju Sistēmas Attīstība Un Izveide Nanotehnoloģiju Industrijas Produktu Ražošanai: Latvijas Pieredze

). 3. Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia (2014). Research and Development Statistics. Retrieved from http://www.csb.gov.lv/sites/default/files/publikacijas/nr_36_petniecibas_statistika_14_00_lv.pdf (in Latvian). 4. Es-Sadki, N., & Hollanders, H. (2014). Innovation Union Scoreboard 2014. European Union, Belgium. 5. Ministry of Education and Science of Latvia (2013). About Development of Smart Specialisation Strategy. Retrieved from http://tap.mk.gov.lv/mk/tap/?pid=40291636 (in Latvian). 6. Liu, Z. & Sha, J. (2012

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Res-E Support Policies in the Baltic States: Electricity Price Aspect (Part II)

References 1. de Miera, G. S., del Rıo Gonzalez, P., & Vizcaıno, I. (2008). Analysing the impact of renewable electricity support schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in Spain. Energy Policy, 36, 3345- 3359. 2. Gelabert, L., Labandeira, X., & Linares, P. (2011). An ex-post analysis of the effect of renewables and cogeneration on Spanish electricity prices. Energy Economics, 33, S59- S65. 3. Moreno, B., López, A. J., & García-Álvarez, M. T. (2012). The electricity prices in the European Union

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