Introduction. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the leading cause of work disability, sickness absence from work, and loss of productivity in healthcare across all the European Union (EU) member states. Aim. This article examines the available evidence on the economic burden of MSDs on informal carers in the UK and highlights areas of moving and handling practice. Summary. Such solutions might improve the outcomes for informal carers and their families, as well as reduce the economic costs of MSDs.
Introduction. It is estimated that every year 31 million people suffer from sepsis and even 6 million cases of illness end up in the patient’s death. In 2016 the current definition of sepsis was established as a life-threatening multiorgan failure resulting from an abnormal immune response caused by patient infection. The pathobiological approach rejects the current method of diagnosing sepsis based on the occurrence of SIRS, because many other non-infectious diseases may also cause its occurrence. There was proposed a scale of progressive organ failure called SOFA and qSOFA. In May 2017, WHO released a resolution that obliges European Union countries to raise awareness about sepsis prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management.
Results. A nurse is the person who spends the most time with a patient, thus becoming the best observer of changes in his/her vital functions and well-being. Nurses working in basic health care, hospital emergency ward and all departments not involved in intensive medical care, have an important role in prevention of infections, as over 70% of sepsis cases begins in a non-hospital environment, and the current level of public knowledge reaches only 14%.
Jerzy Kiszka, Dorota Ozga, Arkadiusz Mach and Romuald Krajewski
Introduction. The population migration to the countries of the European Union (EU) of the conflict of war has grown substantially in recent years. According to the Office for Foreigners in Poland are staying 586 thousand foreigners. 279 refugees from Syria arrived in Poland in 2015. The economic development of Poland means that the number of foreigners settling in or crossing Poland and using the services of the Polish health service is constantly growing. Foreigners from outside Europe (the largest groups are Vietnamese – 8.8 thousand and Chinese – 6.2 thousand) were brought up in a different culture, but also people from European countries (the largest group are immigrants from Ukraine – 513 thousand) may differ from Poles perceive health and illness. Health Personnel may encounter difficulties in providing medical assistance and taking care of a culturally different patient. They may result from the language barrier, lack of knowledge about the differences in patients’ expectations or lack of skills in communication with the patient. The result may be improper assistance, violation of patients’ rights and avoiding the use of medical services.
Aim. Presentation of the migration of population in EU countries, analysis of problems arising during the provision of assistance to culturally different patients and an indication of the possibility of developing cultural competences of paramedics, nurses and doctors through education in this area.
Anna Majda, Joanna Zalewska-Puchała, Kinga Cholewa, Iwona Bodys-Cupak and Alicja Kamińska
Introduction. Migration of professional nurses is a global phenomenon. Polish nurses usually migrate to the relatively richer countries, especially in Europe, thanks to the opening of the borders of the European Union (2004) and legal regulations in the field of education of nurses (Directive 2005/36/EC). Aim. The analysis of symptoms and determinants of acculturative stress and acculturative strategies among Polish migrant nurses working in the UK. Material and methods. The study used a proprietary questionnaire and standardized tool the East Asian Acculturation Measure - Scale of Acculturative Strategy. The research was carried out through Internet among 62 people. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn test, coefficient Spearman. Results. The main reason for the migration of respondents to the UK was the desire to improve financial situation and professional development. Responders found job as a nurse, including a charge nurse and managers in hospitals and nursing homes. Acculturative stress manifested most often in social functioning, then in the emotional, cognitive and physical aspects. It was characterized by a sense of lack of interest from British people, sadness, feelings of loneliness, lower self-confidence and shyness. It was determined significantly by the age of the respondents, the length of stay in the UK, knowledge of English and maintaining social contacts with the British. The most commonly used acculturation strategy was integration, conditioned by the length of stay in the UK and symptoms of acculturative stress. Conclusions. Working in a foreign country is associated with acculturative stress, implementation of acculturation adaptive and non-adaptive strategies.
Barbara Zupanc Terglav, Špela Selak, Mitja Vrdelja, Boris Miha Kaučič and Branko Gabrovec
Republike Slovenije št. 71; 2014. Available at: https://www.uradni-list.si/glasilo-uradni-list-rs/vsebina/2014-01-2937/kodeks-etike-v-zdravstveni-negi-in-oskrbi-slovenije [in Slovenian language]
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importance of focusing on the experiences of overseas nurses
Overseas nurses come from different countries or regions and have different beliefs and cultures. 8 Statistics from the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) provide information on the top 10 countries of origin ( Figure 1 ). Over the past 10 years, the majority of overseas nurses have come from non-EuropeanUnion countries. The main countries to export nurses were the Philippines, India, South Africa, and Australia. Until 2015, there were as many as 22,500 overseas nurses from the Philippines working in the UK
Suwaree Charoenmukayananta, Jiruth Sriratanaban, Sarunya Hengpraprom and Chanvit Trarathep
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, express consent orally, or sign a consent form. As a general rule, the subject should sign a consent form, or, in the case of incompetence, a legal guardian or other duly authorized representative should do so” [ 5 ].
Questions sometimes arise about what form of documentation of informed consent is appropriate for use in communities where many lack literacy. Some, including the EuropeanUnion, specify illiteracy as a necessary condition for permitting verbal consent. It may be inappropriate to ask participants to sign consent forms in such situations, and people in
Osteoporosis is characterized by a decrease of bone mass, but without detectable changes in the mineralized and nonmineralized matrix ratio. Microarchitectural deterioration of the bone tissue occurs in osteoporosis, followed by enhanced bone fragility and increased risk of fracture [ 1 ]. It is estimated that in USA and EuropeanUnion around 30% of women who have reached menopause are suffering from osteoporosis [ 2 ]. In Asia, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis is higher than in the western countries [ 3 ]. In Taiwan, there is a 10.08% prevalence of