Copernicus is an operational program of the European Union for environmental monitoring and civil security. It provides services for collecting, processing and distributing data from Earth observation satellites and network measurements (records) onsite. Copernicus services covers six thematic areas: atmosphere, climate, oceans and seas, the continental emergencies and civil security.
Information can be accessed free of charge on specific websites (www.copernicus.eu) by public institutions / national and international organizations, the scientific community, to be used in developing appropriate policies on the environment and civil security.
Human Development Index Report, 2011
JELÍNEK P., KROUŽEK J. V., NÁPRSTEK M. (2003): Development policy of EuropeanUnion (in Czech), Institute of International Relations, Prague 2003
Treaty on establishment of European Economic Community, EU primary law, 1959
Treaty on the EuropeanUnion, EU primary law, 1992
Treaty on Functioning o f the EuropeanUnion, EU primary law, Smlouvy, 2009
Verordnung Nr. 7 der Kommission zur Festlegung der Arbeitsweise des Entwicklungsfonds für die überseeischen
Fruit and Vegetable Producers’ Cooperative, IX Wojewódzkie Święto Kwitnącej Wiśni, Plantpress, Nowe. European Commissi on, notice No 2009/C 104/09. Publication of an application pursuant to Article 6(2) of Council Regulation (EC) No 510/2006 on the protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs, ‘Wiśnia Nadwiślanka’. Official Journal of the EuropeanUnion, 2009.
European Commission, 2011. Europe, the taste of quality, Europe values the diversity of its quality products. European Commission
Zigmantas Gudžinskas, Egidijus Žalneravičius and Lukas Petrulaitis
The list of invasive alien species of European Union concern currently includes 23 plant species. The aim of this study was to assess the potential and importance of introduction pathways for invasive alien plant species in Lithuania, to estimate probability of their establishment and further spread in the country. Analysis of all available information revealed that three species (Asclepias syriaca, Heracleum sosnowskyi and Impatiens glandulifera) currently occur in Lithuania and the latter two are widespread invasive species in the country. The remaining 20 plant species have not been registered in the wild in Lithuania so far. Four of these, Gunnera tinctoria, Lysichiton americanus, Myriophyllum aquaticum and Pennisetum setaceum, are occasionally cultivated in gardens or other outdoor areas, and six species, e.g. Cabomba caroliniana, Eichhornia crassipes, Lagarosiphon major, are cultivated in aquaria or other indoor spaces. Naturalization of seven species is unlikely in the country, whereas naturalization of 13 species (Lysichiton americanus, Myriophyllum aquaticum, Pennisetum setaceum, etc.) is plausible. Five of the analysed and still not recorded species are recognized as potentially invasive in Lithuania; the invasion of five species is plausible and that of 10 species is unlikely. The most important pathway of introduction of the analysed species is ornamental gardening. Three species that have not been recorded in Lithuania, but occur in the neighbouring regions of Europe (Elodea nuttallii, Heracleum mantegazzianum, Heracleum persicum) can enter the country by natural means. Importance of permanent studies and surveys on alien plants aiming to ensure early detection and eradication of invasive species is discussed.
Problems of the social non-acceptance of the mining industry (particularly development projects) is relatively new, so more widely discussed for a relatively short time. In this paper, an extensive review of worldwide literature on this topic has been presented with special regard to the specificity of the European Union countries, where the NIMBY (Not In My Backyard) phenomenon is one of the key reasons for local community opposition. The problem is recognized mainly from the perspective of the mineral industry, but also from the point of view of government, NGOs or local communities. There are case studies, publications in the range of sustainable development, corporate social responsibility, geo-ethics, proposals for new analytical methods (for example multi-criteria and others) or effective solutions. The improvement in social acceptance for the mineral industry may be achieved by further development of technological, organizational and scientific methods which minimizes mining influences on the environment and society developing. Modern approach to social issues associated with mineral activity includes also strategies of bilateral communication, mediation/negotiation, cooperation between stakeholders to a larger extent then in the past. However, it is the continuous need of extensive, in-depth social debate on mineral development projects in the European Union, both in energetic and non-energetic branch.
Cooperation between entities can be the basis for improved competitiveness. The Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic were able to draw on EU funds to support the formation of producer groups. Main objective was to investigate whether the funds have led to an increase of value added of products placed on the market. In the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic during the reporting period the sum of 44 million EUR was provided to support the establishment of marketing organizations, 305 producer groups were supported. Many of the supported entities are no longer active. In the Czech Republic, only 15 entities are still operating, but they do not have a significant impact on the increase of value added of the agricultural sector. In the Slovak Republic, entities supported in the first programming period (2004–2006) have a higher share of the generated value added. During the second funding period (2007–2013), the supported groups showed a negative value added. Given the characteristics of supported groups, the number of successfully supported groups, the reported features and the total value of generated value added, it can be suggested that most of the entities were established due to the relative ease of fundraising.
Karadas, K., Çelik, Ş., Eyduran, E. & Hopoğlu, S. (2017). Forecasting production of some oil seed crops in Turkey using exponential smoothing methods. The J.Anim.Plant Sci., 27(5): 1719-1729.
Myint, H. (1980). The economics of the developing countries, 5 th edition. London: Hutchinson, Great Britain, 166:111.
Ramachandran, K.M. & Tsokos, C.P. (2009). Mathematical statistics with applications. Elsevier Academic Press , USA, 803:654.
Řezbová, H., Belová, A. & Škubna, O. (2013). Sugar beet production in the EuropeanUnion and their future trends
L.E. Walsh, M.T. Gaffney, G.L. Malloch, S.P. Foster, M.S. Williamson, R. Mangan and G. Purvis
resistance and the para-homologous sodium-channel gene in german cockroaches Blattella germanica Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 24 647 654
Elliott, M., Janes, N.F. and Potter, C. 1978. The future of pyrethroids in insect control. Annual Review of Entomology 23: 443-469. 10.1146/annurev.en.23.010178.002303
Elliott M. Janes N.F. Potter C. 1978 The future of pyrethroids in insect control Annual Review of Entomology 23 443 469
EU. 2018. Legislation of the EuropeanUnion L132. Official Journal of the EuropeanUnion 61: 31
D. Madden, S. Harrison, J.A. Finn and D. Ó hUallacháin
Agricultural land use accounts for approximately 40% of the land area in the EuropeanUnion (EU) ( European Commission, 2013 ), rising to approximately 70% of the land area in Ireland ( Central Statistics Office, 2012 ). The losses of nutrients (e.g. phosphorus and nitrogen) and sediment from agricultural systems to surface and groundwater, through diffuse sources (e.g. nutrient run-of from fields following fertiliser application) and point sources (e.g. direct cattle access to streams), have been highlighted as one of the main threats to water