Environmental Impact Assessment of Biogas Stations in the Czech Republic
The article summarizes the authors' experience with environmental impact assessment in the branch of biogas plants. The introductory part of the paper describes the legislative obligations of the Czech Republic concerning the fulfilment of the European Union's limits as for the utilization of renewable energy resources. The next parts of the paper deal with an impact analysis of biogas plants on the environment. The final part of the paper deals with the experience concerning the implementation of the environmental impact assessment process in the field of biogas plants in the Czech Republic.
Principles of municipal waste management in Poland and selected regions of Europe
High level of production and consumption in member-countries of the European Union is connected with generating a considerable amount of waste. In individual EU member-countries various methods aiming at decreasing the amount of generated waste are implemented. The current situation in Poland, and the best practical solutions introduced in some European regions have been presented in the paper. These solutions were put in place, mainly to fulfill the EU or country's regulations. The priority of municipal waste management measures is to prevent and minimize its generation. Decisions on preventing waste generation should be made as early as at the stage of product designing and manufacturing. The basic principle of proper municipal waste management is to create a system of regional solutions, which includes all the elements of waste management and relates them to the local conditions.
Possibilities of utilizing the solid by-products of biodiesel production - a review
As a consequence of the intended rise in the volume of the biodiesel produced by the member states of the European Union, predominantly from rapeseeds and sunflower seeds, the quantity of the by-products being generated, e.g. glycerol, rapeseed/sunflower seed straw and rapeseed/sunflower seed meal, will increase dramatically. It is therefore recommendable to find effective methods for their processing or utilization in order to reduce the costs of biodiesel production without polluting the environment by excessive wastes. As the utilization of glycerol has often been addressed in the literature1, the aim of our study is to describe the potentiality for utilizing the solid by-products of biodiesel production, namely rapeseed/sunflower straw and rapeseed/ sunflower seed meal.
The European Union produces about 18 million tons of waste from meat industry per year. The real danger of the BSE disease caused a necessity of looking for a new alternative solution of meat waste management. The proposed solution of meat industry waste management would create meat production waste free with the use of the cleaner production method. Cleaner production includes: pollution prevention, reduction of the source, recovery of materials and energy (for example: the recovery of blood plasma and protein hydrolisate from bone sludge) and their recycling. The thermal processing of meat industrial waste (bone sludge, meat-bone meal and odour) is anticipated, too. Ashes from meat calcining have the phosphorus content close to its concentration, of the typical phosphoric raw materials. That confirmed the possibility of using such ashes as the substitute of phosphoric raw materials. The target model of waste free meat waste management included the results of the implemented and current research.
Przemysław Malinowski, Mirosław Olech, Józef Sas, Wiesław Wantuch, Andrzej Biskupski, Leszek Urbańczyk, Mieczysław Borowik and Jerzy Kotowicz
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Przemysław Malinowski, Mieczysław Borowik, Wiesław Wantuch, Leszek Urbańczyk, Michał Dawidowicz and Andrzej Biskupski
the EuropeanUnion L 304/1.
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Monika Ruszak, Marek Inger, Marcin Wilk, Jan Nieścioruk, Magdalena Saramok, Wojciech Kowalik, Jakub Rajewski, Tomasz Wajman, Wojciech Kacprzak and Dariusz Tadasiewicz
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