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Poland towards the German leadership in the European Union

Polityczne”, vol.2, 2012, p. 237-257 [„Nice or death”, that Polish political discourse on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe and its impact on Polish-German relations]. J. Barcz, Wiarygodnie i aktywnie w Unii Europejskiej, „SM”, nr 1(LXV) 2012, p. 105-109 [Reliably and actively in the European Union]. J. Bielecki, Prezydent Francji może ustąpić Polsce, „Dziennik”, 12th November 2008, p. 4 [French President may give way to Poland]. J. Bielecki, Unia uratowała jedność, ale kosztem ekologii, „Dziennik”, 13th-14th

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Consumer Policy in Poland in the Period of Transformation

transformation], Polskie Wydawnictwo Ekonomiczne, Warsaw, p. 22-23 Niepokulczycka M. (1998), Polityka konsumencka w Polsce - aspekt integracyjny [Consumer policy in Poland - aspect of integration], [in:] Gutkowska K., Ozimek I. (ed.), “Socjoekonomiczna i prawna sytuacja konsumentów w Polsce w obliczu integracji z U nią Europejską” [Socioeconomic and legal situation of consumers in Poland and the integration with the European Union], Wydawnictwo SGGW, Warsaw, p. 105-119 Niepokulczycka M. (1999), Polityka konsumencka i ochrona interesów

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Foreign Trade of Galicia and Bukovina and Other Austrian Countries at the End of the 19th Century Based on German Railway Statistics

Prac Naukowych “Universitas”, Kraków. Fiedor K. (2000), Austria. Od gospodarki żarowej do Unii Europejskiej [Austria. From the heating economy to the European Union] , Państwowy Instytut Naukowy - Instytut Śląski w Opolu, Opole, pp. 320-326. Lipelt R. (2011), Chów zwierząt gospodarskich w Galicji w dobie autonomii: analiza statystycznoporównawcza [Breeding farm animals in Galicia in the era of autonomy], Polskie Towarzystwo Historyczne. Oddział (Sanok), Oficyna Wydawnicza Miejskiej Biblioteki Publicznej im. Grzegorza z Sanoka, Sanok. Lutman T

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Impact of Creating Evacuate Tube Transportation Technology for Connecting European Union and China

Abstract

The article presents an economic potential of the trade exchange between China and European Union using the new type of transport – basing on vacuum trains. This technology bases on transporting goods in a capsule. The capsule is moving inside an airtight tube, where the air pressure is decreased to about 100Pa. Owing to the low pressure, an air friction value is very low too, what is enabling to move the capsule inside the tube without meaningful energy loss from the air friction. The transport will provide a very fast and economical shipping of goods between China and Europe. It is expected, that the capsules can reach the speed about 1000 km/h.

Taking all these factors into account, there are new opportunities for the trade exchange with China. It applies especially to the transshipment- industrial districts like Sichuan, Yunnan, Kweichow, and the Chongqing city. The potential of these provinces is a population about 200 millions people, a territory which is twice the size of France and quick economic growth – about 10%. In 2016, the train from Chengdu to Łódź have left 463 times, in 2017 there are 1000 trains planned. The economy of Sichuan is basing on: agriculture, hydropower, big resources of natural gas, heavy industry, and electronics. In Chongqing, there are mainly: automotive, heavy industry, electronics, and chemical industry. In Yunnan dominate agricultural processing, natural resources, and heavy industry. From the viewpoint of polish business, the Sichuan province and the Chongqing city are especially noteworthy. These two are firstly making use of developing Chinese economy. They are also contributing to the „New Silk Road” – OBOR project (One Belt and One Road Initiative) and aspiring to become the trade, financial, scientific-technological and telecommunication-transport center.

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Central and Eastern Europe as Partner of Chinese One Belt One Road Project

Abstract

The Chinese One Belt One Road initiative refers to the idea of the so-called New Silk Road. This ancient trade route connected Asia’s Far East with Europe from the earliest times. In various historical periods, this way of trade has often been interrupted by violent events and rivalry of hegemons that are changing in this huge space.

The current OBOR project assumes an important role of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. It is an area that includes a large number of countries interested in intensifying cooperation with China and Asian countries.

However, the implementation of this project will certainly take many years. While the countries of this region are expecting quick infrastructural investments, in particular in the area of communication. This is a condition for the future success of the Chinese project.

On the other hand, there are many serious conflicts on the route of the planned route of major transport connections (i.e. in Syria, areas inhabited by Kurds). Without a long-lasting calming of this area, the implementation of this project will not be possible.

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Ukraine – Dependence Instead of Neutrality

References Gibas-Krzak D., Ukraina między Rosją a Polską [Ukraine between Russia and Poland], Toruń 2005. Kost P., Ukraina wobec Unii Europejskiej 1991-2010 [Ukraine towards the European Union 1991-2010], Toruń 2012. Olszański T., Historia Ukrainy w XX wieku [The History of Ukraine in the 20th Century], Warszawa 1994. Polska i Ukraina w procesach bezpieczeństwa europejskiego [Poland and Ukraine in the Processes of European Security], ed. W. Gizicki, Lublin 2007. Rosja. Ukraina

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Entrepreneurial Behaviour on the New Silk Road: Space for Improvement?

References Acs Z.J., How is entrepreneurship good for economic growth? Innovations, 1(1)/2006, pp. 97–107. Acs, Z.J., Desai, S., Hessels, J., Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions. Small Business Economics, 31(3)/2008, pp. 219–234. Allen I.E., Langowitz N., Minniti M., Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. 2007 Report on Women and Entrepreneurship, Wellesley: Babson College 2008. Audretsch D.B., Entrepreneurship: a Survey of the Literature, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union 2011. Calinski T., Harabasz

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