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Manuel Agüeros, Pedro Casares-Hontañón, Pablo Coto-Millán and Miguel Ángel Pesquera
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Michal Klobučník CDFMR, Martin Plešivčák CDFMR and Milan Vrábeľ CDFMR
annual GDP of at least 200 billion EUR. These regions are located in Spain ( Cataluña ), Italy ( Lombardia ), Germany ( Oberbayern ) and France ( Rhône Alpes and the absolutely richest region of Île de France with an average annual GDP of over 600 billion EUR).
Average annual GDP of EuropeanUnion NUTS 2 regions in 2007–2016
Source : research results (authorsˈ calculations)
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Evaluating the Extent and Nature of ‘Envelope Wages’ in the European Union: A Geographical Analysis
To evaluate the spatialities of the illegal wage practice where employers pay their declared employees both an official declared wage and an undeclared ‘envelope’ wage so as to avoid tax liabilities, a 2007 survey conducted in 27 European Union (EU) member states is reported. The finding is that 5% of employees received envelope wages which amount on average to some two-fifths of their wage packet. Revealing how, although heavily concentrated in a small group of East-Central European nations, this wage practice is nonetheless ubiquitous, the paper concludes by discussing how this practice might be tackled.
Manuel Agüeros, Pedro Casares-Hontañón, Pablo Coto-Millán, Pablo De Castro and Miguel Ángel Pesquera
This research provides a new theoretical approach to innovation. Innovation relies on collaborative relationships between universities, private companies and public administration. This theoretical approach offers an opportunity for scientific discovery in an environment of collaboration. Innovative ideas are not self-contained items; they are more like ecosystems and networks. The article also provides data processed in recent years (2003-2009) for the European Union states, providing relevant empirical evidence on the relationship between human capital, relational capital, technological capital and innovation. In the econometric and statistical modelling, the countries of the Europe of the Fifteen (EU-15) will be considered.
Level of Development of Electronic Services in Poland Compared with the European Union States
The development of information and telecommunications technology has been a breakthrough in the economy and social life. Both modern and traditional sectors of the economy rely on ICT to manufacture new or much improved products and to modify and improve various types of services, e.g. educational, financial, medical, or administrative. With the propagation of ICT there have appeared new ways of acquiring information, learning, doing shopping, or spending leisure time. Thus, progress in ICT contributes to the formation of a knowledge-based economy and an information society.
The chief aim of this article is to analyse the level of development of electronic services in Poland against the backcloth of other European Union states. The following issues will be discussed in more detail: (1) the state of physical infrastructure necessary for the development of e-services in Poland and other EU states, (2) the level of development of selected types of e-services for individual consumers and enterprises in Poland, and (3) a comparison of the level of development of selected types of e-services with other EU states.