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The Goods Structure of Trade between Polish Regions and the European Union (1)

References Kundera, J. 1984: Metody badania specjalizacji w handlu międzynarodowym (Methods of surveying specialization in international trade - in Polish). In: Przegląd Prawa i Administracji , XVIII, Wrocław: Uniwersytet Wrocławski, pp. 195-220. Kundera, J. 1998: Obroty handlowe Polski z UE w okresie liberalizacji wymiany (Poland's trade with the European Union at the time of trade liberalization - in Polish). In: Kundera, J. and Ostrowska, E. editors, Wymiana towarów i inwestycji między Polską a

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Humanitarian aid of the European Union and United Nations: actions, responsibilities, and finances

On Linking Relief, Rehabilitation And Development (LRRD). Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:1996:0153:FIN:EN:PDF , DoA: 5 th November 2013. European Commission, 1996: Council Regulation (EC) No 1257/96. Of 20 June 1996 Concerning Humanitarian Aid, Official Journal of the European Communities, 163, pp. 1-6. European Commission, 2013: Annual Report on the European Union’s Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection Policies and their Implementation in 2012 COM (2013). Brussels. Available at: http://aei.pitt.edu/38608

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Technical Efficiency of the Generation of Knowledge in the European Union (2003-2010)

Agüeros, M., Casares, P., Coto-Millán, P. and Pesquera, M.A. , 2013: A new approach on innovation and its application to European Union countries. In: Quastiones Geographicae , Vol. 32, 2, pp. 5-14. Afriat, S. , 1972: Efficiency estimation of production functions. In: International Economic Review , No. 13, 3, pp. 568-598. Aigner, D. and Chu, S. , 1968: On estimating the industry production function. In: The American Economic Review , No. 54, 4, pp. 826-839. Aigner, D., Lowell, C. and Schmidt, P. , 1977: Formulation and estimation of stochastic

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Explaining Cross-National Variations in the Prevalence and Character of Undeclared Employment in the European Union

. (1989), The Other Path, London: Harper and Row. Dekker , H., Oranje, E., Renooy, P., Rosing, F. and Williams, C. C. (2010), Joining up the Fight against Undeclared Work in the European Union, Brussels: DG Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. Dibben, P. and Williams, C. C. (2012), ‘Varieties of Capitalism and Employment Relations: Informally Dominated Market Economies’, Industrial Relations: A Review of Economy and Society, 51, pp. 563-582. EUROPEAN COMMISSION (1998), Communication of the Commission on

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Structural Changes in the Industry of Poland Aagainst the Background of Eastern European Union States

: Zioło Z. & Borowiec M. (eds), Problematyka XXV Międzynarodowej Konferencji Naukowej nt. Procesy transformacji przemysłu i usług w regionalnych i krajowych układach przestrzennych. Warszawa-Kraków: 36-37. Gierańczyk W., 2010a. Innovativeness of the European Union against the leading world economies. Problems of Geography , 3-4: 40-47. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia. Gierańczyk W., 2010b. Development of high technologies as an indicator of modern industry in the EU. Bulletin of Geography , 14: 23

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Football clubs’ sports performance in the context of their market value and GDP in the European Union regions

annual GDP of at least 200 billion EUR. These regions are located in Spain ( Cataluña ), Italy ( Lombardia ), Germany ( Oberbayern ) and France ( Rhône Alpes and the absolutely richest region of Île de France with an average annual GDP of over 600 billion EUR). Fig. 4 Average annual GDP of European Union NUTS 2 regions in 2007–2016 Source : research results (authorsˈ calculations) In the spatial analysis of the average annual market value of clubs in NUTS 2 regions of the EU, it is possible to identify the dominance of Western Europe over Eastern

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Recent dynamics in the Portuguese housing market as compared with the European Union

- European Systems Compared, Pergamon: London. Boelhouwer, P.J., 1992: Housing systems in Europe, The Netherlands: Springer Neederlands. Bramley, G., Munro, M. and Pawson, H., 2004: Key Issues in Housing Policies and Markets in 21st Century Britain, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Donner, C., 2000: Housing Policies in the European Union Theory and Practice, Published by the author. Euroconstruct 2007: The Outlook for the European Construction Sector 2005‒2007, Country Reports . European Charter for Housing 26

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Evaluating the Extent and Nature of ‘Envelope Wages’ in the European Union: A Geographical Analysis

Evaluating the Extent and Nature of ‘Envelope Wages’ in the European Union: A Geographical Analysis

To evaluate the spatialities of the illegal wage practice where employers pay their declared employees both an official declared wage and an undeclared ‘envelope’ wage so as to avoid tax liabilities, a 2007 survey conducted in 27 European Union (EU) member states is reported. The finding is that 5% of employees received envelope wages which amount on average to some two-fifths of their wage packet. Revealing how, although heavily concentrated in a small group of East-Central European nations, this wage practice is nonetheless ubiquitous, the paper concludes by discussing how this practice might be tackled.

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A New Approach to Innovation and its Application to the Countries of the European Union

Abstract

This research provides a new theoretical approach to innovation. Innovation relies on collaborative relationships between universities, private companies and public administration. This theoretical approach offers an opportunity for scientific discovery in an environment of collaboration. Innovative ideas are not self-contained items; they are more like ecosystems and networks. The article also provides data processed in recent years (2003-2009) for the European Union states, providing relevant empirical evidence on the relationship between human capital, relational capital, technological capital and innovation. In the econometric and statistical modelling, the countries of the Europe of the Fifteen (EU-15) will be considered.

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Level of Development of Electronic Services in Poland Compared with the European Union States

Level of Development of Electronic Services in Poland Compared with the European Union States

The development of information and telecommunications technology has been a breakthrough in the economy and social life. Both modern and traditional sectors of the economy rely on ICT to manufacture new or much improved products and to modify and improve various types of services, e.g. educational, financial, medical, or administrative. With the propagation of ICT there have appeared new ways of acquiring information, learning, doing shopping, or spending leisure time. Thus, progress in ICT contributes to the formation of a knowledge-based economy and an information society.

The chief aim of this article is to analyse the level of development of electronic services in Poland against the backcloth of other European Union states. The following issues will be discussed in more detail: (1) the state of physical infrastructure necessary for the development of e-services in Poland and other EU states, (2) the level of development of selected types of e-services for individual consumers and enterprises in Poland, and (3) a comparison of the level of development of selected types of e-services with other EU states.

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