Beatriz Molina Serrano, Nicoleta González Cancelas and Francisco Soler Flores
Pollution adjacent to the continent's shores has increased in the last decades, so it has been necessary to establish an energy policy to improve environmental conditions. One of the proposed solution was the search of alternative fuels to the commonly used in Short Sea Shipping to reduce pollution levels in Europe. Studies and researches show that liquefied natural gas could meet the European Union environmental requirements. Even environmental benefits are important; currently there is not significant number of vessels using it as fuel. Moreover, main target of this article is exposing result of a research in which a methodology to establish the most relevant variables in the decision to implement liquefied natural gas in Short Sea Shipping has been development using data mining. A Bayesian network was constructed because this kind of network allows to get graphically the relationships between variables and to determine posteriori values that quantify their contributions to decision-making. Bayesian model has been done using data from some European countries (European Union, Norway and Iceland) and database was generated by 35 variables classified in 5 categories. Main obtained conclusion in this analysis is that variables of transport and international trade and economy and finance are the most relevant in the decision-making process when implementing liquefied natural gas. Even more, it can be stablish that capacity of liquefied natural gas regasification terminals under construction and modal distribution of water cargo transportation continental as the most decisive variables because they are the root nodes in the obtained network.
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The tachograph is the oldest recording device, which belongs to the Group of ORD (On Board Recording Devices). It was introduced in the USA in 1939. Digital tachograph, the new advanced type of recording device in road transport, was introduced by Council Regulation No 2135/98 of 24 September 1998 with the beginning of May 2006, in the area of the European Union. “In contrast to its analogue predecessors the digital tachograph was introduced to facilitate the control of rest and driving times and to prevent manipulation attempt. In order to prevent abuse, it has been made the system of cryptologic keys and certificates stored in cards and devices, allowing creating explicit laws of users and authentic data recorded in, cards and devices. The Hasler Event Recorder was introduced in the 1920s. Regrettably, the construction of analogue tachograph, an original type of tachograph is used in road transport, encouraged to numerous frauds and counterfeits of social rules for drivers. Secure digital tachograph system is indisputably a means having the great influence on road safety, enforcement of the social conditions for drivers in road transport as well as supporting the fair competition between road transport undertakings. In order to better monitor the compliance of road transport with the rules in force, inter alia the provisions on usage the digital tachographs, the European Union regulation introduces the European Registers of Road Transport Undertakings (ERRU), a system that allows a better exchange of information between Member States.
In recent years, the interest in the use of renewable fuels in transport has increased. This is due to the European Union’s policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These fuels, in addition to the effect of reducing carbon dioxide and the other greenhouse gases, may increase the emissions of other exhaust components. The article describes the problems of pollutants emissions from the engine exhaust system, related to the use of biofuels in combustion engines or their additives in conventional fuels. The influence of the chemical composition of selected biofuels on the emissions properties of vehicles and their engines will be discussed. The tests results of engines fuelled with selected biofuels, carried out by the authors of the article, will be presented. These tests will be carried out on chassis dynamometer and engine test bench, in standard research tests used in measurements of pollutants emissions like NEDC, ESC, ETC, etc. Furthermore, selected operational parameters of vehicles and engines will be compared with biofuels and conventional fuels.
Jakub Bachanek, Rafał Rogóż and Andrzej Teodorczyk
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is well known method for reducing NOx emission in diesel engine exhaust gas. Urea-water solution (UWS) injected into hot stream decomposes due to thermolysis into ammonia and isocyanic acid which hydrolyses further into more ammonia and carbon dioxide. Resultant ammonia is the NOx reductor, producing water vapour and carbon dioxide from the reduction reaction. To provide sufficient NOx reduction efficiency, UWS needs to be properly atomized and mixed with exhaust gas. However, due to more and more restrictive emissions regulations provided by European Union and Close Coupled trend of aftertreatment systems in vehicles the design process is very complex and demanding. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are integral part of product development, allowing save time and reduce costs of preparing prototypes for further tests. However, it is necessary to understand all the processes and problems connected with NOx reduction in SCR system. Strong turbulent flow of hot stream gas, urea-water solution spray injection, droplets interaction with wall, wallfilm generation are included. The objective of this work is to investigate the impact of heat transfer modelling inside mixing elements of SCR system on urea mixing uniformity and wallfilm deposit on the walls of the system. Simplified and more complex approach is compared with no heat transfer cases. All the simulations were conducted using AVL FIRETM software. Results showed that wall heat transfer might have an impact on mixing efficiency and wallfilm formulation. It is necessary to take into account the effect of mixing elements heat conduction in CFD simulations during the aftertreatment design process.
It can be stated that over the last ten years in the European Union, the number of bone fractures caused by osteoarthritis has increased twofold. More than 100,000 hip or knee joints in total were implanted in Germany during one year. Within ten years, 5% of them have failed by aseptic loosening. The non-invasive determination of friction forces and control of their values during lubrication of cartilage cells on the superficial layer of human joint surfaces before implantation has a significant but not sufficient impact on the observation of the early abrasive wear of the cartilage joint and development of osteoporosis. From this fact was drawn the inspiration for the performed investigations related to the endoprosthesis surface parameters because knowledge of the roughness of prosthesis surfaces and friction forces and their control methods permits provision of a necessary standard deviation of the gap height and finally information about the implantation possibility. This article has been prepared based on the objective of European Project UE Grant IRSES,612593, 2013-2016 to represent the methodology and goal of the idea described in and make a wider discussion possible on this subject for further developments during the realization. To the research methods and materials used in this article realization belong: Rank Taylor Hobson-Talyscan 150 Apparatus implemented by Talymap Expert and Microsoft Excel Computer Program connected with the Mathcad 15 Professional Program and a new semi-analytical methods of probabilistic and statistic prognosis applied for theory of hydrodynamic lubrication of the curvilinear orthogonal surface and coordinates extended to the friction and wear problems of the endoprosthesis surfaces during the exploitation.
Rafał Prusak, Zbigniew Skuza, Marek Kurtyka and Zbigniew Rembiesa
Reduction of CO2 emissions in Poland (excluding transport) should be related to a change in the structure of electricity production sources. Similar actions have been taken by many European countries. In 2017, in the European Union’s power industry, the largest emitters were dominated by coal-fired power plants in Germany (seven power plants). However, the leader of this ranking turned out to be the Belchatów power plant owned by the Polish Energy Group (PGE). Renewable energy is energy obtained from natural processes. It should be obtained in a way that would not cause a deficit of natural resources (renewed in a short time) to have a limited impact on the environment. The purpose of promoting and using renewable energy sources (RES) is to reduce the harmful effects of energy on the natural environment, primarily by limiting greenhouse gas emissions (water vapour, CO2, CH4, CFC, N2O, halon, ozone and industrial gases HFC, PFC, SF6). Biomass is the most widely used renewable energy source currently used. The study of the literature and comparison of the set parameters for different types of biomass in the given order shows that Virginia mallow has the highest usefulness for energy purposes. Considering the fact that both cashew and coconut (shells) cannot be grown due to the climate prevailing in Poland, Virginia mallow seems to be the best alternative for traditional fuels used in the energy sector in the analysed group. Virginia mallow has competitive properties to wood biomass and hard coal only significantly supercedes in terms of calorific value. The energy properties of Virginia mallow can additionally be improved as a result of the torrefaction process. In addition, in the literature on the subject, attention is paid to the fact that mallow may be grown on less-favoured soils and the process of its collection – in contrast to other such plants – does not require the use of specialized agricultural machinery.
In currently implemented international aviation strategies and programs, including those realised under the European Union policy, such as Clean Sky, SES, SESAR and, CORSIA, the environmental aspect is particularly prominent – reducing the emission of all gaseous pollutants, and from 2020 also particulate matter. Therefore, it is important to know how the change in flight parameters (altitude, speed) affects the emission of pollutants in jet engine exhausts. Such information will enable to adjust the flight altitude of the aircraft when ecological aspect is taken into consideration. In addition to the operating condition (altitude, flight speed, range of power or thrust), the amount and type of pollutants emitted depends on the type of aircraft, its aerodynamic characteristics, engine type and as well as on the type of fuel used.
The impact of changes in aircraft flight parameters (speed and altitude) on the performance of a bypass jet engine and the emission of pollutants in its exhausts is analysed in the paper. For this purpose, the speed-altitude characteristics of such an engine were determined. Next, the emission indexes (EI) for the LTO phase taken from the ICAO database were used to determine the emission indexes corresponding to given parameters of both the engine operation and the aircraft flight. For selected speeds and cruising altitudes, the value of thrust required for the flight of the aircraft was determined and to this value, the engine operation range was assigned as well the corresponding pollutant emission indexes. This allowed to calculate the mass of pollutants emitted per unit of time for given flight parameters. The results obtained are presented in the graphs and discussed.
The duty of applying recorders in the road transport was implemented in states of the European Union on regulations (EWG) no. 3820 / 85 on harmonizations of some social welfare legislation referring to the transport, which was changing with regulation (EWG) no. 3821/85 on recorders applied in the road transport. The duty of implementation of the digital tachograph is also considered in the context of improving road safety. Through the analysis of the records of the registering devices can be defined in each specific case of speeding by more than the allowable value in the area. Technical requirements for your device recorded in the resolution, which defines the main parameters, are measured, among things other, the traversed path length of the car, speed, time driving, other periods of work, politeness of the driver and the correct operation of the check authorized for those authorities. At present led Regulation (EU) No 165/2014 of European Parliament establishing requirements concerning structure, checking, installation, use and repairs of tachographs and their building blocks is implementing the second generation of the digital tachographs connected with the device GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). Organizing the early detection from a distance is showing data officers from the digital tachograph and information concerning mass and mass falling on the wasp of the entire team of vehicles. Experience in work, economic pressures and competition in transport has led the drivers through a transport company in the event noncompliance, and in particular, in relation to the driving time and breaks. This article contains responsibilities after part rest on the drivers of vehicles takes the issues of system security and optimum performance of recording devices.