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Technological competitiveness of the EU member states in the era of the fourth industrial revolution

competitiveness report 2010 . Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. EC. (2015). Monitoring the digital economy & society 2016-2021 . Brussels: European Commission, DG Communications Networks, Content & Technology. EC. (2018). Digital transformation scoreboard 2018. EU businesses go digital: Opportunities, outcomes and uptake internal market . Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. Ernst, H., & Omland, N. (2011). The Patent Asset Index: A new approach to benchmark patent portfolios. World Patent Information , 33 , 34

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Constitutional conflicts in the European Union: Court packing in Poland versus the United States

; Republicans take Ohio, Wisconsin, Kansas and Massachusetts. New York Times, 1. Kumm, M. & Ferreres Comella, V. (2005). The primacy clause of the constitutional treaty and the future of constitutional conflict in the European Union. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 3, 473-492. doi: 10.1093/icon/moi029 Letowska, E. (2018, February 20). Position of the Helsinki Committee in Poland. An open letter. Public Seminar. Retrieved from http://www.publicseminar.org/2018/02/position

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General Government Debt and Budget Deficit as Threats to Economic Security of the European Union Countries

Abstract

The aim of the article is to present budget deficit and government debt in the European Union member states, with particular consideration of the countries that belong to the PIIGS group. This paper has focused on the scale of these phenomena, on their reasons and on some attempts made to improve the unfavourable situation. In the main thesis presented in the article, it is stated that budget deficit and general government debt come as significant threats to economic security of the European Union (EU) countries. The research methods that have been applied in the study involve descriptive analysis and statistical data analysis.

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Unpacking the provision of the industrial commons in Industry 4.0 cluster

., & Somma, E. (2018). Local industrial structure, agglomeration economies and the creation of innovative start-ups: evidence from the Italian case. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development , 30 (7-8), 749-775. Castelo-Branco, I., Cruz-Jesus, F., & Oliveira, T. (2019). Assessing Industry 4.0 readiness in manufacturing: Evidence for the European Union. Computers in Industry , 107 , 22-32. Cluster Platform Deutschland. Retrieved October 10, 2019 from https

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Neighbouring countries – an important segment in inbound tourism An example of the European Union member states

Abstract

The aim of the article is to present the significance of neighbouring countries in the structure of inbound tourism for the member countries of the European Union. In order to achieve this aim, some secondary materials presenting the volume and the structure of tourist traffic in the analysed countries have been referred to. The structure of the article allows the Author to provide a detailed analysis of the particular problems in the discussed field. Firstly, a review of scientific literature on tourist traffic and the significance of neighbouring countries for inbound tourism is provided. The next part of the text presents the countries adjacent to the European Union member states. Subsequently, the significance of these destinations is indicated, due to the data that present the structure of inbound tourism. It transpires that in most analysed countries, their neighbouring states come as a significant - and often even the most important - segment in inbound tourism. Furthermore, neighbouring countries often take the top positions on the list of the countries the citizens of which visit particular destinations most frequently. The analysis of the structure of inbound tourism in Poland in the years 2012-2016 also indicates that the neighbouring markets form the most important segment, regardless of some changes that took place during the analysed time period. Due to the review of some relevant documents, it is indicated (on the example of Poland) that neighbouring countries are often of priority significance in the assumptions and development plans for tourism, although the ranks of the particular countries can be different. On one hand, the considerations presented in the article allow the Author to evaluate the significance of neighbouring countries for inbound tourism in the particular countries; on the other hand, they indicate the necessity of including these countries into the tourism policy, along with promotion activities undertaken in the foreign markets.

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Fiscal consequences of the abolition of sugar levies

. European Commission. (1998). Financing the European Union. Commission report on the operation of the own resources system, commission of the European communities. Brussels: COM 560 final. European Commission. (2004). Financing the European Union. Commission report on the operation of the own resources system. Brussels: COM 505 final, vol. II, Technical Annex. European Union. (2006). Financial Report 2005. Luxembourg: European Union. European Commission. (2008a). 1st Financial Report from the Commission to the European

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Innovation strategies in SME’s economic growth and job creation in economy

Small Firms Policy and Research Conference: Competing Perspectives of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Brighton, 13th–15th November. Tipurić, D., Kolaković, M. (2002). Competitiveness of the Small and Medium Enterprises in Croatia: Straregic Alliances and Virtual Organization Challenges-Asian Small Business Review. - bib.irb.hr European Commission. (2016). User Guide to SME Definition. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. White, S. (2017). The global economy drives SME growth and job creation. October 18, 2017: https

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Economic and operational impact of the MRV implementation on maritime transport processes

Abstract

The European Union (EU) and International Maritime Organisation (IMO) strongly feel the need for initiating measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping lines regionally and globally using a package of tools called Green Shipping Practices (GSP). The GSP includes the use of global market-based mechanisms (MBMs), adoption of the energy efficiency design index (EEDI), establishing compulsory energy efficiency standards for all new ships, and the ship energy efficiency management plan (SEEMP) recommended as a new management tool for ship owners. Furthermore, the European Commission (EC) has proposed that owners of large ships using EU ports should report their verified emissions (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (MRV)) from 2018. In addition, IMO has introduced collection and reporting of ship fuel consumption data (SFCD) under the IMO SFCD scheme based on similar conditions, but related to global shipping. By providing a holistic analysis of the above-mentioned tools with a special focus on MRV and SFCD, this paper presents their economical and operational implications on the maritime transport processes. The working hypothesis that there is a correlation between the introduction of MRV and SFCD tools and reduction of maritime transport anthropopresure has been proved.

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Convergence in GDP per capita across the EU regions— spatial effects

(1), 3-11. doi:10.18559/ebr.2019.1.1 Esposti, R., & Bussoletti, S. (2008). Impact of objective 1 funds on regional growth convergence in the European Union: A panel-data approach. Regional Studies , 42 (2), 159-173. Eurofound. (2018). Monitoring convergence in the European Union. Upward convergence in the EU: Concepts, measurements and indicators . (Research Report). Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. European Commission. (2015). The five presidents’ report: Completing Europe’s economic and monetary union . Brussels

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Cyberattacks on critical infrastructure: An economic perspective

Management , 28 (5), 413-422. Conti, M., Kumar, E. S., Lal, C., & Ruj, S. (2017). A survey on security and privacy issues of Bitcoin. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials , 20 (4), 3416-3452. Council of Economic Advisers. (2018). The cost of malicious cyber activity to the U.S. economy . Washington, DC: The White House. Retrieved from https://www.white-house.gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/The-Cost-of-Malicious-Cyber-Activity-to-the-U.S.-Economy.pdf ENISA (2012). Introduction to return on security investment . Athens: European Union Agency for

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