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Counter Terrorism in the 21st Century and the Role of the European Union

European Union. In: Nesi G. (ed.), Cooperation in Counterterrorism. The United Nations and Regional Organizations in the Fight Against Terrorism . Aldershot: Ashgate. European Security Strategy (2003). Available at < http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/78367.pdf > [Accessed on June 12th 2014]. Extraordinary Council Meeting, Justice, Home Affairs and Civil Protection, 20 September 2001. Available at < http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/12019.en1.pdf > [Accessed on June 13th 2014]. Galli F. (2008). “The Legal and Political

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Legitimacy through Subsidiarity? The Parliamentary Control of EU Policy-Making

References: Bauer Michael, Pitschel Diana and Philip Studinger. Governance Preferences of Sub-national Administrative Elites in the European Union, Lehrstuhl Politik und Verwaltung , Working Paper Series 2010, Vol. 4. Benz Arthur. Linking multiple demoi. Inter-parliamentary relations in the EU, Institut für Europäische Verfassungswissenschaften, IEV-Online , 2011/1 Borońska-Hryniewiecka Karolina. [a]. Regional parliaments and subsidiarity after Lisbon: Overcoming the regional blindness?, Democracy and Subsidiarity in the EU. National

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External and Internal Policies of Belarus After Crimea Annexation

Abstract

Within the last few years, significant changes have taken place in the geopolitical and economic spheres of Europe: Euromaidan, annexation of the Crimea in the East, and problems inside the European Union (issue of migrants, Brexit) in the West. These changes had their impact on Belarus, a country situated between Russia and the EU. Conflict between Ukraine and Russia shook the Belarusian economy. Belarusian authorities were afraid about unexpected Russian steps towards Minsk and about social unrest against their own authoritarian president. All of this forced Alexander Lukashenko to search for new solutions in his policies. During recent months, it was possible to observe the change of a political discourse with Poland, attempts of a cautious cooperation with Russia (which is still Belarus’ main ally), and a search for new sources of finances and energy suppliers. The present situation is a new challenge for Belarusian authorities and even for foreign observers. For inhabitants of the country, the situation is not comfortable.

This article aims to present, based on selected sources, the synthesis of actions that were taken in the external and internal politics by the Belarusian authorities after the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula.

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Mechanisms of Europeanisation and Compliance in Judicial Politics: Understanding the Past and Anticipating the Future

References Bodnar, A. & Bojarski, L. (2011) ‘Judicial Independence in Poland’, in Anja Seibert-Fohr (ed.), Judicial Independence in Transition , Springer. Bobek, Michal 2007. ‘Iudex Ex Machina : Institutional and Mental Transitions of Central and Eastern European Judiciairies’, in Coman Ramona and Jean-Michel De Waele (eds.), Judicial Reforms in Central and Eastern European Countries , Brugge: Vanden Broele. Brusis, M. 2005. European Union enlargement and the Europeanization of Eastern Europe: research puzzles and policy issues. In: Z

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Contemporary Religiosity and the Absence of Solidarity With Those in Need

under the age of 18 years. Eight million of them come from Syria and Afghanistan. The vast majority of refugees, according to the statistics – 86% – live in developing regions See http://www.unhcr.org/figures-at-a-glance.html (accessed 2/6/2018); https://www.amnesty.org/en/what-we-do/refugees-asylum-seekers-and-migrants/ (accessed 2/6/2018). ; hence, Europe is faced only with a small percentage of those in urgent need. And yet it has shown itself unable to find a common approach to help that would come out of the values on which the European Union is based

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EU Initiatives for Democratisation in Eastern Europe

]. Available: http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=26653 . Council of the European Union, (2009) Joint Declaration of the Prague Eastern Partnership Summit, Prague, 7 May 2009, Brussels: Author. Dryzek John S. and Holmes Leslie Templeman. Post-Communist Democratization: Political Discourses Across Thirteen Countries (Theories of Institutional Design) . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 79. ISBN 13: 9780521001380. Election Administration of Georgia. Preliminary Results of the Presidential Elections of Georgia [online]. [access 29 October

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Desperately Seeking Understanding: A New Perspective on Multiculturalism

, rejecting universalistic utopias and turning to their own historical “roots”. Economic globalism and political integration are confronted by cultural separatism, which becomes critical when we come to specific issues swamping Western Europe. One of the issues is the growing presence of Muslims in the European Union (EU). The Summer School on Nationalism, Religion, and Violence in Europe (conducted in Prague between June 18 and 29, 2018) illustrated some concerns about the situation through different presentations and remarkable questions that the participants directed

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Eastern Partnership and the Preferences of New EU Member States

References: Christou George. European Union security logics to the east: the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership. European Security 2010, vol. 19, vo. 3, pp. 413-430. Copsey Nathaniel and Haughton Tim. Choices for Europe: National Preferences in Old and New Member States. Journal of Common Market Studies 2009, vol. 47, no.2, pp. 263-286. Copsey Nathaniel and Pomorska Karolina. Poland’s power and influence in the European Union. Comparative European Politics 2010, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 304-26. Iangbein Julia and

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Challenges of the Illiberal Democracy in Hungary. Some Aspects to the 2018 Elections

Abstract

Political transformation reached Hungary in parallel with other Central and Eastern European countries at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The core of the events, the year of 1989, the so called “annus mirabilis” when, within one year almost the entire Central and Eastern European region stepped onto the path of changes. The actors adopted Western patterns within a short period, institutions of new political systems were established, and a new political power verified and consolidated its legitimacy by free elections. As a final proof of transformation, most of former socialist bloc member states joined both the NATO and the European Union. Hungary had the chance to enter in the 21st century under radically changed and much more favourable conditions than it ever had before. This smooth transformation interrupted by political and economic crisis that finally led to the victory of the opposition that managed to repeat the next elections and implemented the Programme of National Cooperation. The aim of the paper is to analyse why the adoption of the new system enjoys wide support from different social groups and how the old fixations and obsessions persisted in society. This paper also gives a brief explanation about the nature of illiberal democracy in a wider scope and link it with the history of the Hungarian democracy, the (dis) functioning institutions, and confirms the argumentation with some statistical data explaining the correlation between the support of the government and the living standards. It investigates, if the Hungarian illiberal democratic regime interpreted as consequence of the troublesome system changes or if it is rooted in the distorted political system.

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From the Concept to the Practice of Parliamentary Immunity

Representation . Cambridge: Polity Press. McGee, D. (2004). ‘The scope of Parliamentary Privilege’. New Zeeland Law Journal . Vol. 84. Mcgee, S. (2001). Rules on Parliamentary Immunity in the European Parliament and the Member States of European Union . Belgium: ECPRD, Belgium, 2001. Mill, J. S. (2001). On Liberty . Kitchener: Batoche Books. Palonen, K. (2002). ‘The History of Concepts as a Style of Political Theorizing: Quentin Skinner’s and Reinhart Koselleck’s Subversion of Normative Political Theory’. European Journal of Political Theory . Vol

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