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Electrochemical reduction of azo dyes mimicking their biotransformation to more toxic products

aim of this study was to investigate the reduction products of selected azo dyes using the technique of electrochemistry with mass spectrometry (EC–MS). Afterwards, a comparison was made with data available in literature and software for predicting metabolic pathways. Particular attention was paid to the harmful aromatic amine reduction EC products. Based on these results an analytical method using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was developed as a tool for the confirmation of the identified products obtained by

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Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review


The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM) as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog). Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST), which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue), which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna), currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading) are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

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Effects of ketosis in dairy cows on blood biochemical parameters, milk yield and composition, and digestive capacity

(Foss, Denmark). The daily milk yield for each cow was recorded and converted into the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield based on the fat and protein contents of the milk, as follows: ECM (kg/cow per day) = 0.25 × mass of milk yield in kg + 12.2 × mass of fat yield in kg + 7.7 × mass of protein yield in kg. The ECM formula was given by Bell et al . ( 1 ) and cited by Sjaunja et al . ( 22 ). The TMR refused by each cow was collected and weighed daily before the morning feed. Refused feed was sampled on a daily basis and subjected to immediate DM analysis (105°C for

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Histopathological evaluation of polycaprolactone nanocomposite compared with tricalcium phosphate in bone healing

regenerative approaches to improving the healing of large bone defects. Eur Cells Mat 2016, 32, 87–110. 10.22203/eCM.v032a06 Verrier S. Alini M. Alsberg E. Buchman S.R. Kelly D. Laschke M.W. Menger M.D. Murphy W.L. Stegemann J.P. Schütz M. Miclau T. Stoddart M.J. Evans C. Tissue engineering and regenerative approaches to improving the healing of large bone defects Eur Cells Mat 2016 32 87 – 110 26 Vikingsson L., Sancho-Tello M., Ruiz-Saurí A., Martínez Díaz S., Gómez-Tejedor J.A., Gallego Ferrer G., Carda C

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