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Cytokine CCL5 and receptor CCR5 axis in glioblastoma multiforme

types in the GB stroma are affected: the tumour is able to stimulate angiogenesis and co-opt existing vasculature, suppress immune cell functions, disarm microglia and macrophages that should recognize and fight these “foreign elements” in the brain and coerce astrocytes into supporting tumour modification extracellular matrix (ECM) to facilitate invasion. GB cells recruit innate immune cells and change their phenotype to support tumour growth and suppress adaptive immune responses. 14 The increasing understanding of how T cells access the brain and how the tumour

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Localization patterns of cathepsins K and X and their predictive value in glioblastoma

therapeutic resistance 8 and apoptosis. 9 , 10 Besides the hydrolysis of selective proteins, cysteine cathepsins participate in proteolytic cascades, where one protease activates one or several others in sequences that finally regulate hydrolysis of peptide and protein substrates, which is called protease signaling. 10 For example, secreted cathepsins can be considered as initiators of extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading cascades during cell invasion, by cleaving and activating serine proteases, and modifying the tumor microenvironment by cleaving ECM proteins, shedding

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Combined local and systemic bleomycin administration in electrochemotherapy to reduce the number of treatment sessions

separated by 8 mm. The pulse generator used was a BTX ECM 830 (Harvard Apparatus, Holliston, MA, USA). A train of 8 electric pulses (1000 V/cm, 100 microseconds, 10 Hz) was applied, covering the whole tumor 13 , beginning at the periphery of the tumor in a circular fashion in order to have maximum drug concentration at the margins and prevent the spreading of tumor cells. The superposition of electric fields was avoided in order to prevent overtreatment of the lesions. The response to each treatment was evaluated according to the WHO criteria for tumor response 18 , 30

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Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with the enhancement of X-ray susceptibility by RITA in a hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (FaDu)

, POLR2G, POLA1, POLA2, PFAS, PRIM1, POLE4, POLE3, PDE4A, ENTPD8 … hsa05200: Pathways in cancer 52 0.010417112 FGF19 , E2F1, HSP90AB1, E2F2, PTGS2, PDGFB, PGF, STAT5A, ARNT2, FGF11 … hsa05219: Bladder cancer 11 0.016627297 E2F1 , E2F2, TYMP, CDKN1A, PGF, VEGFA, RB1, DAPK2, CDK4, MMP2, DAPK1 hsa04115: p53 signaling pathway 15 0.018499656 CDK1 , CYCS, CHEK1, ATR, CDK4, CCNG2, GTSE1, CCNB1, CDKN1A, CCNB2 … hsa04512: ECM-receptor interaction 17 0.024887625 HSPG2 , SDC4, COL5A1, CHAD, HMMR, VWF, LAMB3, LAMB2, ITGB8, ITGA5

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Minimally invasive electrochemotherapy procedure for treating nasal duct tumors in dogs using a single needle electrode

the electric pulses eight minutes later to allow drug distribution according to the Standard Operating Procedures published by Mir et al. [ 14 ]. The SiNE was inserted deep into the nasal fossa and a train of pulses was delivered, see Figure 2 . For that purpose, a BTX ECM 830 Harvard Apparatus (Holliston, MA, USA) was used. The electric pulses consisted of thirty-two square pulses of 300V, 100 µs long at 1 Hz. The electrode was rotated 90 degrees clockwise and the pulses were repeated. After the rotation, the electrode was removed 2 cm and the whole procedure

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The biology and clinical potential of circulating tumor cells

the extracellular matrix (ECM) may also aid in metastatic colonization. Specific ECM components associated with colonization of the lung in breast cancer have been identified. 68 , 69 Hypoxia and fibrosis have also been linked to metastasis. 19 , 70 Interestingly, suitable microenvironment may start to develop prior to extravasation of tumor cells as a result of systemic effects of the primary tumor. 19 An observation by Costa-Silva et al . describes exosomes derived from tumor cells carrying DNA, mRNA, miRNA and proteins which prime the liver for metastasis

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