M. Giretová, Ľ. Medvecký, E. Petrovová, D. Čížková, D. Mudroňová and J. Danko
The aim of our study was to examine the effects of passive and active cell seeding techniques on in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) isolated from rat bone marrow and seeded on porous biopolymer scaffolds based on polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan (PCH) blends. This paper is focused on the distribution of the cells on and in the scaffolds, since it influences the uniformity of the created extracellular matrix (ECM), as well as the homogenity of the distribution of chondrogenic markers in vitro which ultimately affects the quality of the newly created tissue after in vivo implantation. The three types of cell-scaffold constructs were examined by: fluorescence microscopy, SEM, histology and quantitative analysis of the glycosaminoglycans after chondrogenic cultivation. The results demonstrated that the active cells seeded via the centrifugation of the cell suspension onto the scaffold guaranteed an even distribution of cells on the bulk of the scaffold and the uniform secretion of the ECM products by the differentiated cells.
The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM) as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog). Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST), which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue), which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna), currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading) are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.
Konrad Pietruk, Marta Piątkowska and Małgorzata Olejnik
aim of this study was to investigate the reduction products of selected azo dyes using the technique of electrochemistry with mass spectrometry (EC–MS). Afterwards, a comparison was made with data available in literature and software for predicting metabolic pathways. Particular attention was paid to the harmful aromatic amine reduction EC products. Based on these results an analytical method using liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was developed as a tool for the confirmation of the identified products obtained by
(Foss, Denmark). The daily milk yield for each cow was recorded and converted into the energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield based on the fat and protein contents of the milk, as follows: ECM (kg/cow per day) = 0.25 × mass of milk yield in kg + 12.2 × mass of fat yield in kg + 7.7 × mass of protein yield in kg. The ECM formula was given by Bell et al . ( 1 ) and cited by Sjaunja et al . ( 22 ).
The TMR refused by each cow was collected and weighed daily before the morning feed. Refused feed was sampled on a daily basis and subjected to immediate DM analysis (105°C for
: Mammary gland ECM remodeling, stiffness, and mechanosignaling in normal development and tumor progression. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology , 3, 1. DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a003228.
18. Schedin, P., O’Brien, J., Rudolph, M., Stein, T., Borges, V., 2007: Microenvironment of the involuting mammary gland mediates mammary cancer progression. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia , 12, 71—82. DOI:10.1007/s10911-007-9039-3.
19. Tamburro, A. M., De Stradis, A., D’Alessio, L., 1995: Fractal aspects of elastin supramolecular organization. J. Biomol. Struct
gland Biol. Neoplasia , 14, 223—242.
23. Schedin, P., Keely, P. J., 2011: Mammary gland ECM remodeling, stiffness, and mechanosignaling in normal development and tumor progression. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. , 1, 3, a003228.
24. Seidal, T., 2007: Immunoreactivity to desmin in secretory epithelium of eccrine sweat glands. Histopathology , 18, 89—91.
25. Warburton, M. J., Monaghan, P., Ferns, S. A., Hughes, C. M., Rudland, P. S., 1983: Distribution and synthesis of type V collagen in the rat mammary gland. J. Histochem. Cytochem. , 31
Hadi Eftekhari, Alireza Jahandideh, Ahmad Asghari, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh and Saeed Hesaraki
regenerative approaches to improving the healing of large bone defects. Eur Cells Mat 2016, 32, 87–110. 10.22203/eCM.v032a06 Verrier S. Alini M. Alsberg E. Buchman S.R. Kelly D. Laschke M.W. Menger M.D. Murphy W.L. Stegemann J.P. Schütz M. Miclau T. Stoddart M.J. Evans C. Tissue engineering and regenerative approaches to improving the healing of large bone defects Eur Cells Mat 2016 32 87 – 110
26 Vikingsson L., Sancho-Tello M., Ruiz-Saurí A., Martínez Díaz S., Gómez-Tejedor J.A., Gallego Ferrer G., Carda C