Luiz Wellington Pinto, Silvia Veloso Gandra, Matheus de Carvalho Alves, Isabel Gomes and Eduardo Back Sternick
/ankle arrangement). Bioimpedance was measured as usual in the right side, and also from the left due to the fact that all cardiac devices were implanted at the left subclavicular region. Measured parameters included resistance (R), reactance (X), phase angle (α), body capacitance (C) fat-free mass (FFM), body cellular mass (BCM), extracellular mass (ECM), fat mass (FM), ECM/BCM, body mass index (BMI), total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), TBW/FFM, TBW/body weight and a print-out was obtained from each measurement.
Implanted devices and
Tushar Kanti Bera, Nagaraju Jampana and Gilles Lubineau
distinguish real from imaginary parts of bioimpedance and serve as a guide to define equivalent electrical circuit parameters. Because equivalent electrical circuit models or equivalent circuit models (ECM) [ 6 , 13 ] are very useful for understanding the anatomical, physiological and compositional aspects of biological tissues, an accurate analysis of data plots is required for effective assessment of a tissue’s properties.
Impedance analyzers are used either to measure the electrical impedance of materials at a single frequency or to study impedance variation over a
different 3D cell cultures based on the type of Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM), including:
Artificial ECM (synthetic polymers, alginate …)
Natural ECM (collagen, hyaluronic acid…)
None ECM or scaffold-free (3D spheroids or microtissues) ( Figure 6 ) ( 60 , 61 )
Schematic representation of a scaffold free 3D cell culture in the form of spheroids.
Encapsulation of the cells in the scaffold in a 3D cell culture system, makes direct evaluation of cellular growth and behavior difficult and time consuming ( 62 ). Techniques such as histopathology
samples, cellular monolayers or even just single cells [ 20 , 21 ]. However, it has recently been confirmed that the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role in mechanotransduction [ 11 , 22 ]. It has been known for some time that the ECM serves as a tissue scaffold and a substrate for cell anchorage and hence guides cell migration and has other roles in tissue morphogenesis [ 21 , 23 ]. However, the ECM also transmits signals to the cells via electro-chemo-mechanical stresses [ 3 ] and hence influences most of the cells behavior including proliferation