When making choices and decisions, very seldom does the situation arise that a decision-maker very seldom bases their assessment of the options available on only one criterion. Frequently, many aspects of the available solutions are considered – both in terms of potential benefits and costs. In order to support decision makers, the Multiple-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is used for selecting the solution which is the best in several respects.
There are many methods of multi-criteria decision-analysis such as AHP, ELECTRE, PROMETHEE, VIKOR or TOPSIS. In the article a modification of the last of these methods is used. With the use of TOPSIS method with interval arithmetic the analysis of the level of information society (IS) development in the European Union countries between 2005 to 2010 is performed and its results are presented.
Research purpose. This paper aims at identifying and evaluating the means of communication used and the perceived barriers from employees of the banking system in Albania. The following research questions were formulated: (a) What are the means of communication used in vertical and horizontal communications? (b) Which mean is preferred and valued as the most effective? (c) Which are the barriers that hinder the effective communication flow in these organizations?
Design/Methodology/Approach. A structured questionnaire was addressed to 120 employees of 3 different commercial banks in Tirana, Albania, out of which 100 fully answered questionnaires were received. The questionnaire is divided into three main parts, each of which has two subcategories, and the valuation used for each question is according to the Likert scale from 1 (very few) to 5 (a lot).
Findings. E-mail is the most used communication tool vertically, whereas phone and e-mail are added at the horizontal one. Employee preferences are mostly for e-mail and face-to-face communication vertically and phone and e-mail horizontally. Time pressure and overload of information are perceived as main barriers vertically, whereas distractions are mentioned as biggest hindrance horizontally.
Originality/Value/Practical implications. We suggest that the managers of organizations in the banking sector should properly consider these two communication tools and create suitable conditions for their use. The employees themselves use more of those tools as, according to their perception during communication with colleagues, those tools improve their effectiveness. Other similar studies might be conducted in different types of organizations to point out similarities and contrasts with banking sector.
Mirjana Pejić Bach, Andjelko Lojpur, Sanja Peković and Tatjana Stanovčić
Information sources are considered a catalyst for innovation improvement, and because of this it is particularly important to learn more regarding their impact on innovation performance. Therefore, the goal of this research is to investigate to what extent the usage of different information sources influences internal and external R&D activities in three countries, Croatia, France and the Netherlands, by employing CIS data, which covers the period from 2006 to 2008. These countries were chosen because of the different levels of their country competitiveness (measured by the Global Competitiveness Index), which permits us to investigate if the usage of information sources has varying impact on their innovation performance. Our results reveal that internal sources, customers, suppliers and universities are important information sources for both internal and external R&D activities in all three countries. However, significant differences are also found. Firms from the Netherlands (which has the highest country competitiveness) use information sources differently, relying on competitors as one of their most important sources of innovation. On the other hand, the government did not have any impact on firms in Croatia (which has the lowest country competitiveness), indicating that this may be the reason for similar countries lagging behind.
Vita Stige-Skuskovnika, Inga Milevica, Olga Civzele and Armiyash Nurmagambetova
The performed scientific studies show that proper and skilful use of modern technologies can contribute to significant development of companies. Growth of technologies occurs rapidly, and the electronic environment continuously develops and improves along with it. The electronic environment now already offers companies practically all necessary marketing and communication tools for ensuring company development by creating competitive advantages; nevertheless, not all companies can employ the opportunities rendered by the e- environment, in order to increase company competitiveness and productivity. (Ščeulovs, Gaile-Sarkane 2014). The aim of the paper is to study and compare the enterprises communication in e-environment in two countries – Latvia and Kazakhstan. Study material – 130 enterprises of Latvia, 100 enterprises of Kazakhstan; method – survey. The study was conducted within the Erasmus+ project ‘Mobility between programme and partner countries (KA107)’. Using previous researches and scientific studies, as well as survey of enterprises representatives in Latvia and Kazakhstan, in this paper, the authors a) give an overview of the main trends of enterprise communication in e-environment and b) compare the experience of the two countries.
The purpose of this paper is to present a holistic view of the organizational knowledge dynamics, as an alternative to the current research focusing on different aspects of this complex and nonlinear phenomenon. Organizational knowledge is a semantic construct which has been developed as a result of growing importance of knowledge as a strategic resource, and it constitutes an integration of all forms of knowledge co-existing within an organization. Organizational knowledge varies in time and its dynamics is vital for organizational growth and for achieving a competitive advantage. Our approach is based on metaphorical thinking and on critical analysis of the present research concerning organizational knowledge and organizational intellectual dynamics. Going beyond the iceberg and stocks-and-flows metaphors, our research is based on the energy metaphor and the entropy law. The conceptual approach used and the final results obtained demonstrate the importance and utility of the holistic view in understanding more profoundly the complexity of the organizational knowledge dynamics.
In this paper, the results of my research are presented that was carried out on a large sample to investigate how people look back at their previous business decisions. After a short literature overview, considering the role of time, the paper deals with the primary research: how people judge their decisions in the short term and in the long run, that is, how confident they are that the right one was chosen applying the available knowledge of facts and conditions connected with or relevant to their situation. Using statistical methods, comparisons were made, for example, based on the respondents’ gender, so it turns out whether gender has an influence on self-confidence or on exactness of judgement. Does the position, that is, the rank matter? Can it be assumed that the farther one gets up the corporate ladder, the more certainty can be observed about their decisions? And what about educational level? Does it influence judgement in a decision? Those who do not regret their decisions after a while, that is, after the original decisions were made, while being in possession of the information available later, can be more successful in business because they made the best decision. Trying to identify such characteristics or factors can be an advantage in the business life.
Opportunity and Necessity Entrepreneurs, SCALE - Scientific analysis of Entrepreneurship and SMEs, available at: http://ondernemerschap.panteia.nl/pdf-ez/h201011.pdf, (Accessed on 1st of Nov. 2017).
Verheul, I., van Stel, A. (2007). Entrepreneurial diversity and economic growth. SCALE - Scientific analysis of entrepreneurship and SMEs, 1-29. Available on http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=A82F4969300A91D83E5D9ADBD0744C88?doi=10.1.1.625.7998&rep=rep1&type=pdf; accessed on 1st of Oct. 2017.
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