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A retaining wall is built to provide support to the soil when there is a change in elevation of the ground. Weep holes present in the retaining wall help water to seep through it. Filter protection should be made behind the weep holes to prevent soil erosion around the weep holes. The classic filter material that is widely used is gravel, which is packed according to Hudson’s law. Laboratory experiments were conducted to understand the seepage function of alternative material such as crumb rubber and geocomposite (fabricated) in a homogenous sand layer and in-situ soil. The time taken by the water to reach the weep holes was calculated and compared. From the results, it is suggested to use crumb rubber as an alternative packing material behind the weep hole.

recycling guidelines for state and local governments” , no. FHWA-SA-98-042, December 1997 . [13]. C. RĂCĂNEL, A. BURLACU, “ Using crumb rubber in warm asphalt concrete ”, 15 th „International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo Conference SGEM Albena, Bulgaria, 18 – 24 june 2015, ISBN 978-619-7105-38-4, ISSN 1314-2704, DOI: 10.5593/sgem2015B41, 2015 [14]. C. RĂCĂNEL, Ş. LAZĂR, C. PETCU, “ Asphalt mixtures with blast furnace slag performances using “warm mix” technology ”, 17 th „International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo Conference SGEM Albena, Bulgaria, 29 june – 5

, Volume 67, Part B, 2014 , pp. 270-278. [13] MINHOTO, M.J.C., PAIS, J.C., PEREIRA, P.A.A., PICADO-SANTOS, L.G., “ The influence of temperature variation in the prediction of the pavement overlay life” , Road Materials and Pavement Design, nº 3, vol 6, 2005 , p. 365-384. [14] MINHOTO, M.J.C., PAIS, J.C., PEREIRA, P.A.A., “ The temperature effect on the reflective cracking of asphalt overlays” , Road Materials and Pavement Design. vol 9, nº 4, 2008 , p. 615-632. [15] NETO, S.A.D., FARIAS, M.M., PAIS, J.C., PEREIRA, P.A.A., “ Influence of crumb rubber and digestion time

References [1] “ADOT construction manual”, Arizona Department of Transportation, Intermodal Transportation Division, Arizona, 2005. [2] “The asphalt handbook” Asphalt Institute,, Manual Series nº 4 (MS-4), 1989 Edition, Kentucky, 1989. [3] ARTAMENDI I., KHALID H., “Different approaches to depict fatigue of bituminous materials”, The 15th European Conference of Fracture, Advanced Fracture Mechanics for Life and Safety Assessments Proceedings, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004. [4] “The use of recycled crumb rubber”, Austroads Pavement Research Group, APRG technical note 10

REFERENCES 1. Abdelmonem, A, El-Feky, MS, Nasr, EAR and Kohail, M 2019. Performance of high strength concrete containing recycled rubber. Construction and Building Materials 227 , 1-10. 2. Adamu, M and Uche, OAU 2014. Durability Properties of Concrete Containing Scrap Tyre as Fine & Coarse Aggregate In Concrete. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 5 , Issue 11. 3. Afshinnia, K and Poursaee, A 2015. The influence of waste crumb rubber in reducing the alkali-silica reaction in mortar bars. Journal of Building Engineering 4 , 231-236. 4

., Fortuna, F., Mincarini, M., Berillo, M., Cornacchia, G., 2000. Disposal of waste tyres for energy recovery and safe environment . Applied Energy, 65(1-4), 381-94, Sunthonpagasit, N., Duffey, M. R., 2004. Scrap tires to crumb rubber: feasibility analysis for processing facilities . Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 40(4), 281-299, Szymański, M., Szymczak, M., Łukasiewicz, J., 2006. Zbiór zadań z termodynamiki . Wydawnictwa Uczelniane ATR, Bydgoszcz. Tomporowski, A