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decline (such as Iceland, Italy, Greece and Great Britain) and of enhancing citizenship entitlements in developing societies in Latin America and Asia that are dependent on economic growth in the United States and – increasingly – in China and India.
Third, ethno-nationalist citizenship, authoritarian citizenship and social welfare citizenship regimes presuppose a connection between geographical territory and a political system, or more precisely, a relationship between territoriality and rights. The relationship with both ethno-national and authoritarian citizenship
assimilating themselves into Australian ways of life. The racism experienced by Southern European migrants in the early- to mid-20th century became less frequent from the 1980s, and new migrant groups, such as the Indo-Chinese, Arabs and Sudanese, subsequently became the target of racial vilification in Australia (Lo Bianco cited in Jupp 2001 ; see also Ang 2001 ; Batrouney 2002 ; Jupp 2002 ; McMaster 2002 ). In 1996, there was a drop in the official count of Italian migrants registered in Australia as compared to the 1970s. This decline represents some return migration