contribution, I explore the changes which have occurred in the governance of large and complex urban agglomerations (referred to below as city-regions) during periods of significant national transition. There is, of course, a large literature on city-regions but the overwhelming bulk of this work draws on cases in countries where political and economic systems have been fairly stable over an extended period.
The BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) offers an opportune framing for case work, as all countries in this geopolitical cluster have experienced far
Development Policy (ITDP) based in New York City, Embarq in Washington, DC and the World Bank, also in Washington DC are the principal promoters of BRT, affording a robust network of experts as well as the financial support, both of which are a perquisite to those cities eager to replicate BRT. And they target cities in rapidly urbanizing parts of the world such as Brazil, Colombia, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa, where governments have routinely turned a blind eye to public transport, instead spending vast sums on slick and shiny roadways that encourage the
Esraa Jamal, David Scott, Ahmed Idris and Gordon Lovegrove
Kuwaitis to commute via private cars and for non-Kuwaitis to also shift to drive cars.
These trends in private car use and the characteristics of bus users in Kuwait are consistent with those found by researchers in other developing countries such as India (in gender, age, income and education) and China (in income and education) ( Xia, Jun & Wei 2009 ; Ashalatha, Manju & Zacharia 2013). However, the survey results in Kuwait also suggest that a large segment of the population (especially young workers, low-income residents, and more highly educated classes) could be
. The profit from the lease of commercial structures is used for the benefit of the whole community. In the most successful cases, like in the municipality of Huaidi in China, these profits might even suffice to provide universal basic income for the CLT inhabitants. At the same time, CLTs are relatively open to the outside. To avoid a ‘bubble-like’ character, their governing bodies comprise at least three groups of stakeholders, which include CLT residents, members of the broader community not resident at the CLT, and municipal officials.
As one of my respondents
which automation cannot fix, all will need human interaction.
Economic effects of AVs in freight transport
Reducing staff costs and raising efficiency are required to compensate for investment in the new technology. But there will also be social effects of AVs if employment in the transport sector will reduce dramatically. To understand the magnitude of this, we have to understand that there are 1.5 million people working in the road transport industry in the US, 3.0 million in the EU and 3.9 million in China as can be seen in Table 1 . Of these – which also
southern metropolises are excited at the possibility of accumulating capital while remaking their cities.
Key to this is reinvestment in the secondary circuit of capital (the built environment, real estate). As is shown in L. Lees, H.B. Shin and E. López-Morales (2016) , in some parts of the global south this is happening at the same time as investment in the primary circuit of capital (industrial production), for example, in China; whilst in other places (re)investment in the secondary circuit is trumphing (re)investment in the primary circuit (for example, Dubai
(Argentina was one of the richest countries in the world), Manchester, Los Angeles or Boston.
As for the developing areas, the phenomenon of big cities was unknown there until 1900. Their emergence results from, on the one hand, the growth of urban centres in which the population already exceeded 500,000 at the beginning of 20 th century, while on the other, from the rapid development of small and medium towns. Among the examples of the former, we can list e.g. Calcutta and Bombay in India, Shanghai and Beijing in China or Cairo in Egypt, while the latter group includes
Relevant Points for China Institute for Industrial Productivity. Available from: http://www.iipnetwork.org/Industrial%20Restructuring%20in%20the%20Ruhr%20Valley.pdf [accessed: 20.08.2018]. Taylor R. P. 2015 A Review of Industrial Restructuring in the Ruhr Valley and Relevant Points for China Institute for Industrial Productivity Available from http://www.iipnetwork.org/Industrial%20Restructuring%20in%20the%20Ruhr%20Valley.pdf [accessed: 20.08.2018]
Ustawa z 9 października 2015 r. o rewitalizacji Dz.U. 2015 poz. 1777 [in Polish]. Ustawa z 9