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Studia Anglica Posnaniensia
The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University
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Needles, China Cups, Books, and the Construction of the Victorian Feminine Ideal in Rhoda Broughton’S Not Wisely, but too Well and Elizabeth Gaskell’S North and South


Considering Victorian presentation of women as angelic, that is, spiritual, beings, it is rather surprising how much their presence was manifested by material objects. Baskets of needlework, tea equipage and novels lying around in a parlour were an unmistakable sign of the house being occupied by women. Indeed, my contention is, the objects did not clutter Victorian interiors, either real or imagined, merely for practical reasons or to produce the “reality effect.” They are a material representation of the immaterial and function as metaphors for angelic women’s spiritual qualities. Rather than functioning merely as details to enhance the illusion of the real (and thus as elements of style) or simply reflecting the Victorian world (and thus as empty forms), material objects are essential in constructing a middle-class (feminine) identity. My paper concentrates on Rhoda Broughton’s Not wisely, but too well and Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South with an attempt to show how objects help construct a feminine ideal and, simultaneously, reveal the ideal to be just a construction. Broughton’s Kate Chester and Gaskell’s Margaret Hale find themselves in situations where their middle-class status might be compromised. Still, they both manage to reassert their position through effectively manipulating the signs of middle-class respectability. The “flimsy and useless” things they surround themselves with point to their “essentially feminine” qualities. Yet, the very superfluity of the objects reveals their relation to the characters’ economic status. They are, then, the site where the material and immaterial meet, where the borders between the economic world and the domestic world blur.

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The Holy and the Unholy in Chaucer’S Squire’S Tale

References Benson, Larry D. 1987 Riverside Chaucer . (3rd edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Carpini, John of Plano 1955 “History of the Mongols”, in: Christopher Dawson (ed.), 3-72. Dawson, Christopher (ed.) 1955 The Mongol mission: narratives and letters of the Franciscan missionaries in Mongolia and China in the thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries . London - New York: Sheedd and Ward. Kingsley, G.H. [1875] 1965 Francis Thynne’s Animadversions upon Speght’s first (1598 A

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Successful Learners of Irish as an L2: Motivation, Identity and Linguistic Mudes

, Tatsuya, Michael Magid and Mostafa Papi. 2009. ‘The L2 Motivational Self System among Japanese, Chinese and Iranian Learners of English: A Comparative Study’, in Zoltán Dörnyei and E. Ushioda (eds.). Motivation, language identity and the L2 self . Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 66-97. Ushioda, Ema. 2012. ‘Motivation: L2 Learning a Special Case?’, in: S. Mercer, S. Ryan, and M. Williams. Psychology for Language Learning . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Yashima, Tomoko. 2009. ‘International posture and the ideal L2 self in the Japanese EFL Context’, in

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Re-Constructing the Self in Language and Narrative in Eva Hoffman’s Lost in Translation: a Life in a New Language and Anaїs Nin’s Early Diaries

in Chinese and Jewish American literature. Columbia and London: University of Missouri. Pavlenko, Aneta. 2014. The bilingual mind and what it tell us about language and thought. Cambridge: CUP. Philips Casteel, Sarah. 2001. Eva Hoffman’s double emigration: Canada as the site of exile in Lost in translation. Biography 24(1). 288-301. Podnieks, Elizabeth. 2000. Daily Modernism: The literary diaries of Virginia Woolf, Antonia White, Elizabeth Smart and Anaїs Nin. Montreal: McGill-Queen University Press

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Arab Efl Learners’ Acquisition of Verbs of Senses

of verb argument structure”, Cognition 41: 153-195. Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy - Roberta Michnick Golinkoff (eds.) 2006 Action meets word: How children learn verbs . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Holmquist, Jonathan (ed.) 2007 Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics . Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project. Hu, Hsiao-Ping 2007 “Natural Second Language Acquisition or pidginization? Present tense verb usage by adult Chinese speakers of Spanish in Guayaquil, Ecuador”, in: Jonathan Holmquist

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Anxiety in Spanish EFL University Lessons: Causes, Responsibility Attribution and Coping

classroom anxiety scale: Test construction, reliability, and validity. JALT Journal 25(2). 593-598. Krashen, Stephen D. 1981. Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon Press Inc. Krashen, Stephen D. 1982. Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press Inc. Liu, Meihua. 2006. Anxiety in Chinese EFL at different proficiency levels. System 34. 301-316. MacIntyre, Peter D. 1995. How does anxiety affect second language learning? A reply to Sparks and

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