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Ethylene is one of the basic raw materials of the petrochemical industry used for the production of plastics, mainly plastic packaging. The USA is the largest producer of this compound. The enormous increase in demand for Ethylene has been observed in recent years in China as well as in the Middle and Far East. This caused an unprecedented increase in the demand for transport of this cargo by sea. Ethylene carriers for its transport are special construction LPG vessels, having a cascade cycle with Propylene medium (less often the refrigerant R 404 A). They have been designed in such a way as to withstand a working pressure of up to 5.4 bar, and the minimum temperature of the transported load is minus 104°C for fully cooled Ethylene. This cargo is explosive in the mixture with air (within concentrations of 2.75-2.6%) and during heating under elevation pressure. Therefore, it is required to transport Ethylene in with an inert gas, most often Nitrogen. During the operation of LPG carriers carrying Ethylene, processes of aeration, inerting, gassing-up, cooling tanks and a cargo are repeatedly carried out. The most problematic to carry is gassing-up operation, because it is associated with significant amounts of Ethylene loss, this causes large financial losses. In the article, the authors attempted to diagnose the most serious problems during carrying out the most important for cargo loss the cargo handling operations.
The article analyses the activities within the EU and national (Sweden, Poland) concerning the introduction of hydrogen fuel in road transport. The advantages and disadvantages of this drive were addressed. A directional program of hydrogen propulsion technology motion was presented on the example of Sweden and Poland. The most recent activities in Sweden regard the so-called Nordic Hydrogen Corridor European Project. The location of basic hydrogen refuelling stations in Poland until 2030 was proposed (HIT-2-Corridors European Project). These stations should be located in both TEN-T corridors running through Poland, i.e. in 1 – Poznan, 2 – Warsaw, 3 – Bialystok, 4 – Szczecin, 5 – the Lodz region, 6 – the Tri-City region, 7 – Wroclaw, 8 – the Katowice region, 9 – Krakow, to ensure the possibility of passing vehicles equipped with fuel cells (FCEV – Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle) among others between Western Europe and Scandinavia. For comparison, the article discusses FCEV development and initial hydrogen market creation in Japan. In the article is presented reasons for hydrogen society in Japan. The reasons are as follows: hydrogen is CO2 free; hydrogen can be produced from various sources, energy security – local production and consumption of energy, energy security – compensating for fluctuations in renewable energy production. In the article is presented Hydrogen/FCEV strategy Roadmap in Japan in context Hydrogen/FCEV Roadmap in China.
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