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It appears - and this is apparent from school documentation - that every school considers its duty to support career orientation. At the same time, it is obvious that guiding the process of making career choices exists only on the level of references. As we did not question teachers, we have only tiny fragments what is done for the sake of career choices. Such is like: letting students visit an open day; as the part of the head-teacher’s class they help students complete the admission form to high-schools; based on academic records they make the proper type of high schools, there was an elementary school that brought its students to trade gatherings in Budapest, where both on film and on the spot students were introduced to the master-strokes (on the other hand students did not remember these, even though they were present).
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Witnauer, W. D., Rogers, R. G., & Saint Onge, J. M. (2007). Major league baseball career
Harri Rintala, Roope Sovelius, Pirjo Rintala, Heini Huhtala, Simo Siitonen and Heikki Kyröläinen
Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association of pre-career magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and physical performance level with possible musculoskeletal disorders during jet flight training. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 73 fighter pilots who had undergone pre-career cervical and lumbar spine MRI. Physical performance of a subgroup of the pilots (n = 67) was measured initially at the same time and followed up to the fast jet training phase (ranging from 3.8 to 7.0 years). Musculoskeletal pain history during pilot training was taken from the medical charts. MRI findings and physical performance were associated with perceived clinical complaints during the follow-up. Results: 82% of the cervical and 92% of the lumbar spines showed abnormalities at at least one disk level. MRI did not reveal significant cervical degeneration. Thirteen disk bulges in the lumbar spine were discovered, while 5 pilots had listhesis and/or osteophyte formation on the spine (lumbar vertebra 4/sacroiliac joint level, L4-SI). 41% of the studied pilots suffered spinal symptoms during the follow-up, but only 16% and 17% of the cervical and lumbar MRI findings, respectively, were associated with subsequent symptoms. Endurance and strength levels were not, but lower body motor skills were, strongly (relative risk, RR 0.46) associated with a decreased number of flight-induced medical appointments in the early flight career. Conclusions: Minor MRI findings have no predictable value in the very early flight career. Nevertheless, versatile, skills/power-oriented exercises before the flight career seem to be occupationally beneficial in reducing musculoskeletal disorders.
Yunus Emre Karakaya, Timothy A Brusseau and Tamer Karademir
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Lajos Lászlóné Balogh Melinda Csepcsényi and Alice Bredács
It is a commonplace view today that schools do not prepare students properly for solving technical problems emerging in an ever-changing world. As attested by various PISA surveys, Hungarian students can only retrieve their knowledge situations. Their self-regulated learning, problem solving and cooperative skills do not develop in accord with the requirements of their future career. Positive transfer effects are only slightly expressed in learning, especially in the long run.