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Variants of Development of Sports Career of 11-Year-Old Female Swimmers

References Sozański, H. (1999). Foundations of Sport Training Theory. Warszawa: Wyd. RCMSzKFiS. [in Polish] Sachnowski, K. & Sozański H. (2000). Development of sports career, structure of the long-term training process. In W. N. Płatonow & H. Sozański (Eds.), Optimalization of sports training structure (pp. 21-97). Warszawa: Wyd. RCMSzKFiS. [in Polish] Kiss, L. (2008). Development of a world champion backstroker. American Swimming Magazine 6, 30

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The Experience of Dual Career through Slovak Athletes’ Eyes

REFERENCES Amara, M., Aquilina, D. & Henry, I. (2004). Education of young sportspersons (lot 1). Report Finale. Brussels: Directorate-General Education and Culture. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/sport/library/documents/c3/pmp-study-dual-career_en.pdf Aquilina, D. (2013). A study of the relationship between elite athletes’ educational development and sporting performance. International Journal of the History of Sport , 30 , 374-392. Aquilina, D. & Henry, I. (2010). Elite athletes and university education in Europe: A review of policy

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The Examination of the Factors Determining Career Engagement for Students Preparing for a Social Job

-51. Betz, N. E., & Taylor, K. M. (2012). Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale and Short Form Sample Set. Manual, Instrument and Scoring Guide . Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden. Billédi K. (1999). Pályaszocializáció vizsgálat szociális munkásoknál. In Dienes E., Kovács Z., & Takáts Á. I. (Eds.), XIV. Munkapszichológus szakmai napok, Tanulmányok és műhelybeszámolók (pp. 37-56). Esztergom: SZCSM Munkaügyi Kutató Intézete. Czeglédi Cs., & Juhász T.(2013). A pályakezdők munkaerő-piaci megfelelése a pályakezdők szemszögéből. Taylor , (3-4), 91-97. Csehné

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Life After a Sports Career: the Case of Polish Ex-fencers

References Allison, M., Mayer, C. (1988). Career problems and retirement among elite athletes: The female tennis professional. Sociology of Sports Journal , 5, 212-222. Babbie, E. (2004). The Practice of Social Research . Warsaw: PWN Babbie, E. (2009). The Basics of Social Research . Warsaw: PWN Bomirska, L., Woźniak, R. (1994). Społeczne problemy sportsu w okresie transformacji ustrojowej w Polsce /Social Problems in Sports during Political System Transformation in Poland/. Roczniki

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The Development of the Sports Careers of the Best Decathletes in the World and in Poland in the Years 1985–2015

J., Przednowek K., Walaszczyk A. (2014). Sport career in 400 m hurdle run in various groups of the best athletes in the world. In 19th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, 2-5 July 2014 (Abstract). Amsterdam: ECSS. 9. Dziadek B., Przednowek K., Cieszkowski S. (2014). A time series analysis of the best results of sprint running in Poland between 2003-2013. Scientific Review of Physical Culture 4(4), 5-10. 10. Grycmann P., Maszczyk A., Socha T., Gołaś A., Wilk M., Zając T. et al. (2015). Modelling analysis and

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Contextualising Pietro Monte’s Military Career in Italy

Abstract

Several scholars have studied Pietro del Monte’s works, but only a few have focused on his military career. This article contextualises his career as a condotierre, primarily by collecting and commenting on narrative sources describing his life. From the Italian and Spanish courts where he mingled with the brightest minds of his time, to the Italian Wars where he met his death on the battlefield, Monte lived as an acting commander, a respected scholar, and a renowned master at arms.

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Experience and Observations on the Choice of Career among Disadvantaged Students in North-Hungary

Abstract

It appears - and this is apparent from school documentation - that every school considers its duty to support career orientation. At the same time, it is obvious that guiding the process of making career choices exists only on the level of references. As we did not question teachers, we have only tiny fragments what is done for the sake of career choices. Such is like: letting students visit an open day; as the part of the head-teacher’s class they help students complete the admission form to high-schools; based on academic records they make the proper type of high schools, there was an elementary school that brought its students to trade gatherings in Budapest, where both on film and on the spot students were introduced to the master-strokes (on the other hand students did not remember these, even though they were present).

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Cypriot Olympians’ Socialization into Sport

Cypriot Olympians’ Socialization into Sport

Since the mid-20th century, and parallel with the devaluation of the classical Olympic idea, the classical Olympic amateur status has been modified: Olympians have been permitted to earn money legally via their sport performances. They have been legally defined as employees, and they have become to be regarded as "Olympic professionals".

The Cypriot elite athletes, who joined the Olympic family in 1980, did not follow international trends regarding this special kind of professionalism. Their start in sport also was to be different from the beginning of most professional Olympic athletes’ sporting careers. The objective of this article is to present information on the particular characteristics of Cypriot Olympians’ socialization into sport based on the findings of an empirical research carried out by the author. The investigation was carried out by quantitative (standardized questionnaire) and qualitative (in-depth interviews) methods among Cypriot Olympians, their coaches, and managers. The quantitative data were summarized by Microsoft Excel 2003 program. Qualitative information was analyzed according to the special criteria.

The results deal with the following topics: the athletes’ age at the start and at the specialization, their motivations, their socializing agents, and their parents’ sporting experiences. In the conclusion the impact of the Cypriot sport culture and the ambivalent Cypriot sport politics on the athletes’ early sport socialization is emphasized.

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The Olympic Games: The Experience of a Lifetime or Simply the Most Important Competition of an Athletic Career?

Abstract

As a multi-sport event that only takes place every four years and is accompanied by intense media coverage, the Olympic Games are often described by athletes as a defining moment in their careers. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to describe differences in expectations of Olympic debutants towards the Olympics and their actual experiences while they were at the Games; and 2) to describe how the athletes negotiate the balance between performing at and enjoying the experience of the Olympic Games. Further, we will discuss the athletes' stories in light of the differences between the goals and expectations of the elite sport system and those of the individual athletes. Data was collected through a qualitative interview study with a pre- and post-Olympic competition design.

Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed 14 Danish Olympic debutants about their Olympic goals and expectations within a month preceding their departure for the Olympic Games and about their actual experiences within a month following their return.

Condensed narratives from two Olympic debutants represent the spectrum of the athletes' expectations and experiences: one failed in his performance but had a great experience; the other was successful and won a silver medal but was truly unhappy with her experience. The debutants emphasize balancing their desire to perform with a desire for social experiences. They also discussed the challenges posed during preparation and goal setting.

Olympic debutants are caught in a very real dilemma between the Olympics as the “most important competition of their athletic careers” and “the Olympics as the experience of a lifetime.” This dilemma is linked to a wide rift between the perspectives and goals of the sport organization and those of the athletes.

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Somatic, Endurance Performance and Heart Rate Variability Profiles of Professional Soccer Players Grouped According to Age

physical activity may also have a decelerating effect relating to the ageing of cardiac related vagal functioning ( Aubert at al., 2003 ; Banach et al., 2000 ). Nevertheless, professional soccer players over their sports career are frequently faced with high physical and mental stressors that may represent a chronic allostatic load that has been associated with decreased vagal activity ( Thayer and Sternberg, 2006 ). In this regard, one would expect some negative outcomes related to autonomic cardiac function in older players. Spectral analysis (SA) of heart rate

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