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Since the mid-20th century, and parallel with the devaluation of the classical Olympic idea, the classical Olympic amateur status has been modified: Olympians have been permitted to earn money legally via their sport performances. They have been legally defined as employees, and they have become to be regarded as "Olympic professionals".
The Cypriot elite athletes, who joined the Olympic family in 1980, did not follow international trends regarding this special kind of professionalism. Their start in sport also was to be different from the beginning of most professional Olympic athletes’ sporting careers. The objective of this article is to present information on the particular characteristics of Cypriot Olympians’ socialization into sport based on the findings of an empirical research carried out by the author. The investigation was carried out by quantitative (standardized questionnaire) and qualitative (in-depth interviews) methods among Cypriot Olympians, their coaches, and managers. The quantitative data were summarized by Microsoft Excel 2003 program. Qualitative information was analyzed according to the special criteria.
The results deal with the following topics: the athletes’ age at the start and at the specialization, their motivations, their socializing agents, and their parents’ sporting experiences. In the conclusion the impact of the Cypriot sport culture and the ambivalent Cypriot sport politics on the athletes’ early sport socialization is emphasized.
Rune Dall Jensen, Ask Vest Christiansen and Kristoffer Henriksen
As a multi-sport event that only takes place every four years and is accompanied by intense media coverage, the Olympic Games are often described by athletes as a defining moment in their careers. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to describe differences in expectations of Olympic debutants towards the Olympics and their actual experiences while they were at the Games; and 2) to describe how the athletes negotiate the balance between performing at and enjoying the experience of the Olympic Games. Further, we will discuss the athletes' stories in light of the differences between the goals and expectations of the elite sport system and those of the individual athletes. Data was collected through a qualitative interview study with a pre- and post-Olympic competition design.
Using a semi-structured interview guide, we interviewed 14 Danish Olympic debutants about their Olympic goals and expectations within a month preceding their departure for the Olympic Games and about their actual experiences within a month following their return.
Condensed narratives from two Olympic debutants represent the spectrum of the athletes' expectations and experiences: one failed in his performance but had a great experience; the other was successful and won a silver medal but was truly unhappy with her experience. The debutants emphasize balancing their desire to perform with a desire for social experiences. They also discussed the challenges posed during preparation and goal setting.
Olympic debutants are caught in a very real dilemma between the Olympics as the “most important competition of their athletic careers” and “the Olympics as the experience of a lifetime.” This dilemma is linked to a wide rift between the perspectives and goals of the sport organization and those of the athletes.
Michal Botek, Jakub Krejčí, Andrew J. McKune and Iva Klimešová
physical activity may also have a decelerating effect relating to the ageing of cardiac related vagal functioning ( Aubert at al., 2003 ; Banach et al., 2000 ). Nevertheless, professional soccer players over their sports career are frequently faced with high physical and mental stressors that may represent a chronic allostatic load that has been associated with decreased vagal activity ( Thayer and Sternberg, 2006 ). In this regard, one would expect some negative outcomes related to autonomic cardiac function in older players. Spectral analysis (SA) of heart rate
The lifestyle reform movements at the turn of the century played a remarkably important role in the growing priority attributed to physical education. Sports clubs could be considered the most influential nongovernmental organizations at the beginning of the 20th century. Sports were given special priority and were even supported by legal measures in Hungary between the two world wars. Playing football gained vast popularity. We focus on two famous football players, Puskás, “the most famous Hungarian” and Deák, a Guinness record-holding top goal scorer. To be precise, we focus on their photos: we have similar ones of a young Puskás and a young Deák. These photos depict a very important moment in the lives of both youngsters. We conduct an iconographic analysis in order to illustrate connections the two young football players have to their clubs and to the sport.
Sven Schneider, Johannes Sauer, Gregor Berrsche and Holger Schmitt
, the athletes specified their living situation and any career in competitive sports on the part of their parents or siblings.
The ACHE study was evaluated using traditional descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate associations were examined using χ 2 tests. Significant bivariate determinants of analgesic consumption were included in a multiple linear regression analysis. Each analysis was carried out with the assistance of IBM’s software program, SPSS Statistics 24.0.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, USA). Each test was conducted in an
: mercenaries (their transfer was motivated by money), settlers (they remained in the country for 4–5 years, often also after their sports career had finished), ambitionists (interested in their personal sports career), nomadic cosmopolitans (interested in experiencing another culture), the exiled (those who left a country due to personal or political reasons), celebrity superstars (for media attention; e.g. Beckham).
Migration models in sports are not unified and differ depending on the sports discipline, gender of the athletes, a country and even a continent.
Vincent Gouttebarge, Haruhito Aoki and Gino Kerkhoffs
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Gulliver A, Griffiths KM, Christensen H. Barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking for young elite athletes: a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry, 2012a; 12: 157
Gulliver A, Griffiths KM, Christensen H, Mackinnon A, Calear AL, Parsons A, Bennett K, Batterham PJ, Stanimirovic R. Internet
Mark Nesti, Martin Littlewood, Lisa O’Halloran, Martin Eubank and David Richardson
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