Ageing society, lack of skilled workforce, changes in work life careers and changes in partner and family models, a shift in societal roles of women and men, young and old, migration flows from rural to urban, multiple residences and new forms of housing and the related spatial impacts are in focus of demographic change. It is obvious that demographic change is not to be managed without gender and equality issues. Spatial planning has a crucial role in facing these challenges as spatial planning laws demand to ensure equal access to housing, services and labour markets and to organize transparent and inclusive decision making procedures. The paper explores key concepts, methods and selected case studies from Europe on gender planning trying to focus on the potential for innovating planning discipline and tackling with demographic change issues in rural areas. Cases from Bavaria and Austria compared to rural regions in Eastern Germany with high female emigration show concrete planning approaches.
Marco Porporato, Giacomo Grillone, Augusto Patetta, Aulo Manino and Daniela Laurino
While observing: non-acceptance, frequent replacements, and reduced performance in honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica) queens, we were induced to analyse a certain number of queens to detect the causes. For this purpose, 99 newly mated queens were bought from 20 Italian queen breeders. In addition, 109 older or at-the-end-of-their-career queens, that showed poor productivity, were collected from honey production hives throughout Italy. All the queens were dissected to check the status of their reproductive system and/or the presence of various anomalies and diseases.
Anatomical and functional anomalies, pertaining to ovaries and spermatheca, also in association with tissue alterations and microorganisms like Nosema spp. and protozoa, were common in both newly mated and older queens, but they were more prevalent in the latter. Observed differences permitted us to highlight the causes of the reduced performance of the queens and of the colonies they originated from. The obtained information could prove useful when it comes to improving queen breeding techniques.
S. J. Rahmat, I. A. Koretsky, J. E. Osborne and A. A. Alford
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-stress way of life that is economically viable. A key factor (alongside that of economic profitability) in determining the sustainability of dairy farming in Ireland is how the next generation of potential farmers evaluate the quality of life and lifestyle offered by a career in farming. In a recent study of new entrant farmers in Ireland, McDonald et al . (2014) found a strong sense of ambition and entrepreneurial drive of new entrants to own and run successful family farms. According to the Central Statistics Office (CSO) (2012) , young farmers, those under the age
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Fodor József (1843–1901) is the founder of Hungarian hygiene who established the second hygiene department and hygiene institute in the world; he was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He lived in the era of great microbiological discoveries, and his rich and multidisciplinary work has opened up new directions and approaches in science. For a short period of time he was professor at the newly established university from Cluj (Kolozsvár), later he had important contributions to the Hungarian public health act of 1876. His entire professional career represents a very special model by the messages left behind. He was proposed for Nobel Prize in medical (biological) sciences, but he suddenly died on 20 March 1901.