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at the start of their working careers in the destination country. With the passage of time, however, refugees are expected to converge to the employment and wage levels of other migrants. The most important reason cited for this recovery process is that the likelihood of returning home is smaller for refugees, as they face a higher risk of harm or persecution and often keep fewer social ties with their country of origin ( Phillimore 2011 ). In view of their prospects for settling permanently, refugees thus have a stronger incentive to invest in the destination
OECD Family Database 2012. Online at: http://www.oecd.org/els/family/database.htm
The trade-off faced by women with small children Children younger than 6 years. and working careers — stay at home to take care of a child or return back to work — is widely discussed in both the academic literature and social policy debates. Mothers may base their decision on different factors: e.g., preferences, social norms, income, and time constraints. In general, family policies seek to relieve economic constraints and maintain the work–family balance. The concerns
Decriminalizing indoor prostitution: Implications for sexual violence and public health. NBER, Working Paper 20281
De Walque, D. 2009. Does education affect HIV status? Evidence from five African Countries. The World Bank Economic Review, 23(2): 209-233. 10.1093/wber/lhp005 De Walque D. 2009 Does education affect HIV status? Evidence from five African Countries. The World Bank Economic Review, 23 2 209 – 233
Debrulle, J. 2016. The role of entrepreneurship in the context of career trajectories: Moving back into wage employment or into unemployment? Labour, 30
Xuan Wei, Gülcan Önel, Zhengfei Guan and Fritz Roka
Stable Workforce for Strawberry Growers” (Florida Strawberry Research and Education Foundation, August 2015 – July 2016)
“Creating sustainable workforce for small fruits and vegetables industry in Florida: The impact of federal immigration programs and solutions to labor shortages”, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Early Career Scientist Seed Funding, 2015.
We would like to thank Xianwei Meng for his helpful discussion and comments.
Altonji, J. G.; D. Card; (1991): The Effects of
approved the final manuscript.
Altonji, J. G.; E. Blom; C. Meghir (2012): Heterogeneity in Human Capital Investments: High School Curriculum, College Major, and Careers. Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews 4(1), 185-223. 10.1146/annurev-economics-080511-110908
Altonji J. G. Blom E. Meghir C. 2012 Heterogeneity in Human Capital Investments: High School Curriculum, College Major, and Careers Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews 4 1 185 223
Ashenfelter, O.; C. Harmon; H. Oosterbeek (1999): A Review of Estimates of
and Legal Status: Evidence from Repeated Amnesty Programs Journal of Economic Geography 18 4 887 914
Gleeson, Shannon; Roberto G. Gonzales (2012): When do Papers Matter? An Institutional Analysis of Undocumented Life in the United States. International Migration 50(4), 1-19. 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2011.00726.x Gleeson Shannon Roberto G. Gonzales 2012 When do Papers Matter? An Institutional Analysis of Undocumented Life in the United States International Migration 50 4 1 19
Goldin, Claudia; Lawrence F. Katz (2008): Transitions: Career and
choosing the right job and career, or as a manager when running daily operations or planning the next factory, we all face constantly and simultaneously complex, interrelated problems for which our natural intelligence seems to have made us particularly well equipped. Indeed, until recently, no machines were remotely deemed to be capable of matching our intellectual capacity, even though the idea of an intelligent machine emerged as soon as the invention of the computer in the 1930s. In 1936, long before the invention of modern, silicon-based computers, Alonzo Church and
Pablo de Pedraza, Marcos Álvarez-Díaz and Marcos Domínguez-Torreiro
might be used as a stepping stone toward more secure working conditions. The analysis of drivers reflecting transitions toward permanent contracts and higher salaries can shed light on this issue. Higher levels of self-employment are also assumed to reflect negatively upon the overall level of job security in the economy.
Finally, higher rates of involuntary uptake of part-time and temporary jobs will also be related to higher job insecurity.
Employment security refers to the probability of staying in employment during the entire career, but not necessarily in
Pablo de Pedraza, Stefano Visintin, Kea Tijdens and Gábor Kismihók
; data are also used by headhunters, temp agencies, occupational career websites, among others for predicting the chances to find a job, given a preferred occupation.
Despite the promising results, and the fact that new data sources could either supplement nonresponse or fully abandon costly vacancy surveys, we emphasize the importance of traditionally generated benchmarking data, rather than proclaiming Big Data as a substitute for official statistics (OS).
The remainder of the paper is structured as follows. Section 2 explains the data generation processes for