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Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy, Resident Progenitor Cells and the role of Cellular Signalling; a Review

Introduction CVD is the most prevalent mortality type worldwide, with an approximate 31% of deaths related to some form of CVD in 2016 [ 1 ]. In addition, it is estimated in Europe that CVD is the cause of 45% of deaths per year [ 2 ]. Two of the main risk factors in development of cardiovascular disease are obesity, stemming from poor diet, lack of physical activity, and smoking. These lifestyle choices can lead to hypertension, high blood cholesterol, atherosclerosis, all increasing likelihood of CVD. The World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that over

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The impact of obesity to antioxidant defense parameters in adolescents with increased cardiovascular risk

documented that oxidative stress is strongly related to inflammatory processes in obesity. Adipose tissue secretes pro-inflammatory citokines such as: tumor-necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 ( 12 ). The goal of this study was to analyze the oxidative stress status of obese students with and without increased risk for cardiovascular events (CVD) through the values of antioxidant parameters: super-oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and total antioxidant status (TAS). In addition, the aim was to determine

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Detection of lipoprotein X (LPX) – a challenge in patients with severe hypercholesterolaemia

Introduction Severe hypercholesterolaemia with a total cholesterol (TC) concentration above 25 mmol/L (∼1000 mg/dL) is an extremely rare condition. The most widely recognised cause is homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH) presenting with an increased level of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and accelerated advanced cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( 1 ). However, severe hypercholesterolaemia may also be unrelated to increased LDL-C, resulting instead from the presence of an abnormal lipoprotein fraction – lipoprotein X (LpX) ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). LpX is most

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Is dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis associated with the prognosis of myelodysplastic syndrome?

. Abbreviations IMA: Ischemia Modified Albumin, WBC: White Blood Cell The comorbidity distribution of the MDS patients included hypertension in 67.5% (n: 52), cardiac disease in 32.5% (n: 26), thyroid disease in 13.8% (n: 11), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 13.8% (n: 11), renal disease in 10% (n: 8), cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in 5% (n: 4), and collagen tissue disease in 5% (n: 4). It was found that 6.3% of the MDS patients had solid MDS, 31.3% had MDS with ring sideroblasts (MDS-RS), 20% had MDS with multilineage dysplasia (MDS-MLD), 25% had

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Cardiovascular Risk Factors In 7–13 Years Old Children From Vojvodina (Serbia)

Summary

Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which starts early in life and depends on many factors, an important one being dyslipoproteinemia. According to several studies, atherosclerotic plaques or their precursors could be seen in children younger than 10 years. During later life, interaction with a sedentary way of life, as well as unhealthy nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease cause the burden of atherosclerotic disease.

Methods: Study included 624 children (316 boys, 308 girls), aged from 7-13 years. We analysed socio-demographic data (BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular family history, smoking status), as well as lipid status with lipoprotein little a-Lp(a), and apolipoproteins: Apo AI, Apo B-100 for all children. This enabled us to calculate new atherogenic indices Tg/HDL-c, lipid tetrad index (LTI) and lipid pentad index (LPI). Cardiovascular risk for later life was estimated by using modified Risk Score for Young Individuals (RS), which divided the subjects according to the score level: low, medium and higher risk.

Results: The older children (13 y) had better lipid status than the younger children, i.e. significantly lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and non-HDL-C concentration and significantly higher HDL-C concentration than the younger children and this was in accordance with the RS level. Children with a positive family history of CV disease had significantly higher Lp(a) concentration and blood pressure. LPI was significantly higher in children with a higher RS.

Conclusions: The results of our work could be used for cardiovascular risk assessment in apparently healthy children to provide preventive measures which could control the change able risk factors.

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Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

References 1. Goodarzi M, Carmina E, Azziz R. DHEA, DHEAS and PCOS. J Ster Bioch 2015; 145: 213–25. 2. World Health Organisation, Global Health Observatory data, Mortality and morbidity, Cardiovascular diseases [04.09.2016.], http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/mortality_morbidity/cvd/en/ . 3. Birdsall MA, Farquhar CM, White HD. Association between polycystic ovaries and extent of coronary artery disease in women having cardiac catheterization. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126: 32–5. 4. Legro RS. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease: A

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Lipoproteins and other Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in a Student Population

Summary

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in many populations, especially in developed countries. The aim of the study was to analyze the lipid status in a student population at increased risk for CVD in comparison with students who are not at increased risk for CVD.

Methods: This study included 238 students from the University of Novi Sad of both sexes (126 men and 112 women), with a mean age of 22.32±1.85 years. According to the body mass index (BMI) lower and higher than 25 kg/m2 and waist circumference (WC) of less and more than 94 cm (80 cm for females) the whole group of 238 students was divided into 2 subgroups: the group at increased risk for CVD (Group 1) and the group at lower risk for CVD (Group 2). Total cholesterol - TCH, triglycerides - TG, high density lipoprotein cholesterol - HDL-c, low density lipoprotein cholesterol - LDL-c, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol - VLDL-c concentrations were determined and the index of atherosclerosis (IA), established risk factors RF-TCH/HDL-c ratio and non-HDL-c/HDL-c ratio were mathematically calculated.

Results: The values of TCH, LDL-c, non-HDL-c, VLDL-c and TG were significantly higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (P<0.001). IA, non-HDL-c/HDL-c and RF-TCH/HDL-c ratio were also significantly higher (P<0.001), while HDL-c was significantly lower (p<0.01) in Group 1 compared to controls. These results were not influenced by gender in both groups of subjects.

Conclusions: The data suggest that increased anthropometric parameters are followed by increased lipoprotein status in the group of students at increased risk for CVD and screening of the lipid status is necessary in students, especially in those who are at increased risk for CVD.

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Biochemical Aspects, Laboratory Diagnosis and Follow-Up of High Blood Cholesterol: NCEP ATP III Guidelines

Biohemijski Aspekti, Laboratorijska Dijagnoza I Praćenje Povišene Koncentracije Holesterola: Preporuke NCEP ATP III

Treći izveštaj ekspertske grupe o detekciji, evaluaciji i tretmanu povišene koncentracije holesterola u odraslih (Adult Treatment Panel III, ATP III) predstavlja ažuriran klinički vodič Nacionalnog programa edukacije o holesterolu (National Cholesterol Education Program, NCEP), o određivanju holesterola i zbrinjavanju osoba s povišenom koncentracijom holesterola u serumu. Pored toga što preporučuje intenzivan tretman pacijenata sa koronarnom srčanom bolešću (coronary heart disease/CHD), važna karakteristika ATP III je težište na primarnoj prevenciji kod osoba sa više prisutnih faktora rizika. ATP III nastavlja da identifikuje povišene koncentracije LDL holesterola kao primarni cilj terapije za snižavanje holesterola. Osnovni princip prevencije je da se intenzitet terapije prilagođava apsolutnom riziku za CHD svake osobe pojedinačno. Procena rizika podrazumeva određivanje LDL holesterola u sklopu analize lipoproteina i identifikaciju pratećih determinanti rizika (prisustvo ili odsustvo CHD, drugih kliničkih oblika aterosklerotske bolesti i dijabetesa, pušenje, hipertenzija, niska koncentracija HDL holesterola, porodična anamneza prevremene pojave CHD, starost). U kategoriji najvišeg rizika nalaze se osobe sa CHD i CHD ekvivalentima rizika, čiji je apsolutni rizik od pojave srčane smrti ili nefatalnog infarkta miokarda u narednih 10 godina ≥20%. Drugu kategoriju čine osobe sa dva ili više faktora rizika kod kojih je 10-godišnji rizik <20%. Apsolutni rizik se procenjuje na osnovu Framingham rizik skora. U trećoj kategoriji su osobe sa jednim ili nijednim faktorom rizika. Definisane su preporučene koncentracije LDL holesterola za svaku kategoriju i postižu se korekcijom ishrane i/ili farmakoterapijom. Evropske preporuke za prevenciju kardiovaskularne bolesti (cardiovascular disease, CVD) u kliničkoj praksi preporučuju upotrebu SCO-RE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation) tablica za procenu rizika za pojavu CVD, koje podrazumevaju apsolutnu verovatnoću za fatalan ishod CVD u toku 10 godina. Cilj ovog rada je predstavljanje delova NCEP ATP III i evropskih preporuka značajnih za njihovu implementaciju u laboratorijsku praksu.

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The Influence of Type And Duration of Cardiovascular Complications On Antioxidative Parameter Values In Type 2 Diabetic Patients

The Influence of Type And Duration of Cardiovascular Complications On Antioxidative Parameter Values In Type 2 Diabetic Patients

It is well established that type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with highly increased risk of coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and total mortality. CVD is the leading cause of death of people with diabetes. The aim of our study was to test the effect of type and duration of cardiovascular complications on antioxidant parameter values: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and total antioxidant status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and manifested cardiovascular complications. Out of 100 subjects included in the study, 69 subjects were type 2 diabetic patients with cardiovascular complications and 31 age-matched controls. Statistical data processing revealed significantly lower antioxidant defense (p<0.001) in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension (HTA) and myocardial infarction experienced in the previous 8 years (AMI). The type 2 diabetics with longer history of diabetes and coronary artery disease had higher fasting glucose values, higher GR activity, but lower TAS and SOD activity (p<0.05). Fasting glucose levels were in negative correlation with SOD and GPx activities in the subgroups of diabetics with severe cardiovascular complications (CAD+AMI, CAD+AMI+ HTA) (p<0.05).

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Dimethylarginine – biomarkers in progression of kidney disease / Dimetilarginini – biomarkeri u progresiji bubrežnih oboljenja

Summary

Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and/or impaired NO bioavailability may occur in patients with the chronic kidney disease (CKD), and could contribute to elevation of blood pressure, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and progression of renal injury in these patients. Free guanidinomethylated arginine residues occur endogenously as a result of proteolysis of post-translational methylated tissue proteins. The asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes. The kidney has a predominant role in ADMA elimination by combining two mechanisms; urinary excretion and metabolization of ADMA The degradation of ADMA is accomplished intracellularly by the enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). ADMA is not only a uremic toxin, but also a strong marker of the endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis and a stronger independent predictor of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcome in patients with the chronic renal failure. There are at least four mechanisms that may explain the accumulation of ADMA in CKD: increased methylation of proteins, increased protein turnover, decreased metabolism by DDAH and impaired renal excretion. A strong positive correlation between symmetric dimethyl arginine (SDMA) and creatinine suggests that SDMA might be of value as a marker of the renal function. Reduced NO elaboration secondary to accumulation of ADMA and elevated inflammation may be important pathogenic factors for endothelial dysfunction in patients with the renal disease. Elevation of ADMA may be a missing link between CVD and CKD.

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